Radin, Paul, 1883-1959. The Winnebago tribe

Table of Contents

Publication Information

The Winnebago Tribe

Part I

Chapter I History

General Remarks

The Tale Of Tcap□o'sgaga 8

How The Winnebago First Came Into Contact With The French And The Origin Of The Decora Family

What The Shawnee Prophet Told The Winnebago

Winnebago Names Of Other Tribes And Peoples

Chapter Ii Winnebago Archeology

General Problems

Implements Of Stone And Other Materials

Copper Implements

Earthworks And Mounds

Intaglio Mounds

Conical Mounds

Linear Mounds

Effigy Mounds

Description Of Lake Koshkonong Mounds

The Conical Mounds

Combinations Of Conical And Linear Forms

Linear Mounds


Bird Effigies

Mammal Effigies

Turtle And Allied Forms

The Grouping

The Man Mound

Miscellaneous Structures

Chapter Iii Material Culture


Clothing And Adornment


Fishing And Agriculture

Games And Amusements

Travel And Transportation

Musical Instruments

Divisions Of Time

Chapter Iv General Social Customs

Male Terms Of Address

Female Terms Of Address

Joking Relationship 4

Mother-in-law And Father-in-law Taboo

Puberty Customs



Chapter V Burial And Funeral Customs

Description Of Funeral Customs And Wake

Generalized Description Of Funeral Customs And Wake

Funeral Customs Of The Thunderbird Clan (first Version)

Death And Funeral Customs Of The Thunderbird Clan (second Version)

Death And Funeral Customs Of The Bear Clan 8

Funeral Customs Of The Buffalo Clan

Origin Myth Of The Four Nights' Wake

Grave-post Marks (drawinos By Indians). (fig. 28)

Chapter Vi Warfare And The Council Lodge


The Council Lodge

Chapter Vii System Of Education 1

My Father's Teaching To His Sons And Daughters

System Of Instruction To Son

System Of Instruction To Daughter

System Of Instruction To Children

Part Ii

Chapter Viii Social Organization—general Discussion

The Twofold Grouping

Functions Of The Twofold Division

Clan Organization

Reckoning Of Descent

Individual Names

Attitude Toward Clan Animals

Relationship To Clan Animals

The Clan Tie

Clan Functions

The Reciprocal Relationship Of The Clans

The Specific Possessions Of The Clan

Immaterial Possessions Of The Clan

The Clan Marks Of Identification

Influence Of The Clan Upon Ceremonial Organization

Chapter Ix Social Organization—specific Clans

The Thunderbird Clan


Clan Myths And Names

Origin Myth (told By A Member Of The Clan) 3

Second Version (told By A Member Of The Clan)

Third Version (told By A Member Of The Clan—fragmentary) 8

The Warrior Clan


Origin Myth (told By A Member Of The Clan)

Clan Songn

Eagle And Pigeon Clans

Clan Names

The Bear Clan


Origin Myths

First Version 15

Second Version

Third Version

Fourth Version

Fifth Version

Sixth Version 17

Seventh Version

Clan Songs

Clan Names

The Wolf Clan


Origin Myths

First Version (told By A Member Of The Clan)

Second Version (told By A Member Of The Clan)

Third Version—told By A Member Of The Clan (franmentary)

Clan Songs

Clan Names

The Water-spirit Clan


Origin Myth (told By A Member Of The Clan)

Clan Names

The Buffalo Clan


Origin Myth 21

Clan Songs

Clan Names

The Deer Clan


Origin Myths

First Version (told By A Member Of The Clan)

Second Version (told By A Member Of The Clan)

Clan Song.

Clan Names

The Elk Clan


Origin Myth (told By A Member Of The Clan)

Clan Names

Snake And Fish Clans

Clan Names

Clan Names

First Four Given In Each Clan

Chapter X Shamanistic And Medicinal Practices


Tales Concerning Midjistega

Lincoln's Grandfather

The Uses Of The Stench-earth Medicine 1

How An Indian Shaman Cures His Patients 5

Thundercloud's Fasting Experience

Chapter Xi Religion


The Concept Of Supernatural Power 1

The Concept And Nature Of The Spirits

The Power And Localization Of The Spirits

The Twofold Interpretation Of The Relation Of The Spirits To Man

The Guardian Spirits

Personal Religious Experiences 4

How Wegi'ceka Tried To See Earthmaker 5

Account Of J.'s Fasting

R.'s Fasting. (r. War A Memner Of The Bear Clan)

Aratcge'ka's Fasting 12

Account Of X.'s Fasting

How Y. Fasted And Was Blessed With A War-bundle 17

What G. Obtained In His Fast

How A Bear Blessed A Man 23

How The Daughter Of Mank□erexka Refused A Blessing From Disease-giver 25

Fasting Experience (informant, Clan Unknown)

J. B.'s Fasting Experience

How A Man Defied Disease-giver

Methods Of Bringing The Spirits Into Relation With Man

The Folkloristic Concepts

The Cosmological Ideas

Part Iii

Chapter Xii Ceremonial Organization


Ceremonies Associated With The Clans

The Clan Feasts

The Thunderbird Clan Or Chief Feast

The Bear Clan Feast (first Version)

The Bear Clan Feast (second Version)

The Bnake Clan Rkast

Chapter Xiii Religious Societies Based On Blessings From Spirits

Society Of Those Who Have Received Blessings From The Night Spirits

Society Of Those Who Have Been Blessed By The Herok□a

Society Of Those Who Have Been Blessed By The Buffalo Spirits

Society Of Those Who Have Been Blessed By The Grizzly Bear

Chapter Xiv The Medicine Dance (pls. 49, 50)

Origin Myth

Organization Of The Bands

Personal Accounts Of Initiation

Chapter Xv Miscellaneous Dances

The Hok□ixe're Dance

The Herucka Dance

Watcona□k□êwê Feast (afraid-to-eat-greens Feast)

The Captive's Death Dance

The Farewell Dance

The Soldier's Dance

Ceremony Of Uangeru (begging Ceremony)

Feast To Buffalo Tail

Kikre Waci And Tcebokona N K Dances

Chapter Xvi The Peyote Cult

General Description

John Rave's Account Of The Peyote Cult And Of His Conversion

O. L.'s Description Of The Peyote Cult (pl. 55, A )

J.b.'s Account Of The Leader Of The Peyote 1 (pl. 3)

Albert Hensley's Account Of The Peyote 2 (pls. 3, D; 9, D )

J. B.'s Peyote Experiences

J. B.'s Account Of His Conversion

Jesse Clay's Account Of The Arapaho Manner Of Giving The Peyote Ceremony Which He Introduced Among The Winnebago In 1912

Development Of The Ritualistic Complex

Dissemination Of The Doctrine

What The Converts Introduced

The Attitude Of The Conservatives

Chapter Xvii The Clan War-bundle Feasts

The War-bundle Feast Of The Thunderbird Clan 1 (first Version)

Introductory Remarks

Analytical Presentation Of The Ceremony

Analysis Of Types Of Action And Speeches

The Development Of The War-bundle Feast And Its Place In The Ceremonial Organization Of The Winnebago

Characterization Of The Spirits Mentioned In The War-bundle Feast

Description Of The War-bundle Feast

First Division Of The Ceremony—in Honor Of The Thunderbirds

Sweat-lodge Ritual

The Dog Ritual

General Placing Of The Tobacco

The Tobacco Offering To The Spirits

The Buckskin Offerings To The Spirits

Filling Of The Ceremonial Pipe And Smoking Ritual

Basic Ritual 62

The Feast

The Fast-eating Contest 95

Continuation Of The Basic Ritual

Second Division Of The Geremony—in Honor Of The Night Spirits

The Toracco Offering

Basic Ritual

The Throwing Out Of The Buckskins

Frant To The Night Spirits

Ritn Of Thosn Who Have Bern Crazed By The Night Spirits

Continuation Of The Basic Ritual

Terminal Address To The Dog


The War-bundle Feant Of The Tunnderbird Clan (second Version)

The War-bundle Feast Of The Thunderbird Clan (third Version)

The War-bundle Feast Of The Bear Clan

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The Winnebago tribe

Published By: Original publisher Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. 1923. 35-560 p.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Paul Radin

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2010. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Winnebago/Ho-Chunk (NP12)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Organized ceremonial (796); Literary texts (539); Spirits and gods (776); Prayers and sacrifices (782); Clans (614); Life history materials (159); Warfare (726); External relations (648); Prehistory (172);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This work, which is the primary document on the Winnebago for this collection, is a meticulously executed piece of ethnographic writing by a well-known professional anthropologist specialized in the field of American Indian studies. This document was compiled by the author during the years 1908-1913 while working for the Bureau of American Ethnology and on private expeditions, and was originally recorded as much as possible in the Winnebago language, which was later translated into English. The researcher will notice that each of the chapters contained in this work, with the exception of those on archaeology, history, and material culture, is divided into two parts, the data, and a discussion thereof. All aspects of Winnebago ethnography are covered in this source, with three exceptions--mythology, art and music. The reason for this exclusion is explained in the preface on page 47. Of special interest in this document is chapter 17 dealing with the clan war-bundle ceremonies, pp. 427-560, which presents the native text and word-for-word translation of the minute details of the various ceremonies. In general coverage the following aspects of Winnebago ethnography are presented: culture history, archaeology, material culture, social, burial and funeral customs, warfare and the tribal council, education, social organization, shamanism and medical practices, religion, clans (history, organization and dances), and the Peyote Cult. It is interesting to note that some of the life history material to be found in this work, especially in regard to chapter 16--the Peyote Cult, may be found reproduced almost verbatim in the autobiography of Crashing Thunder.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. np12-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1908-1913

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. John Beierle ; 1963; John Beierle; 2008

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1634-1913

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Wisconsin, United States

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Ho Chunk Indians


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