Zhou, Min, 1956-. Chinatown: the socioeconomic potential of an urban enclave

Table of Contents

Publication Information

1 Introduction

Immigrant Enclaves And Assimilation

Chinatown As A Socioeconomic Enclave

Scope Of The Study

2 Memories Of Sojourning

The Gold Mountain: An Illusion

Bitter Strength: The Sojourners

Exclusion: The Chinese Must Go

Chinatown: Involuntary And Voluntary Segregation

From Sojourners To Settlers


3 Changes In Recent Chinese Immigration

The Changing Contexts Of Reception

Immigration Policies

Conditions Of The U.s. Labor Market

Preexisting Kinship And Family Networks

The Changing Contexts Of Exit

Emigration Policies

Disparities Between Life Expectations And Reality

The Changing Mentality


4 Uprooted: The New Arrivals

Diverse Origins

Immigrants From Mainland China

Immigrants From Hong Kong

Immigrants From Taiwan

Work Experience

Demographic Features Of The Chinese In New York



Preferred Destination

Economic Resources


5 The Rise Of The Economic Enclave

Chinatown's Traditional Economies

Post-1965 Development

Major Economic Activities


Garment Industry

Retail And Wholesale Trade

Real Estate

Jewelry Trade

Tourism And Entertainment

Professional Firms

The Structure Of The Enclave: A Duality

The Enclave Protected Sector

The Enclave Export Sector

The Success Of The Enclave


6 The Ethnic Labor Force And Its Labor-market Experience

The Enclave Labor Market

Human-capital Characteristics Of The Ethnic Labor Force

Immigrant Chinese Workers In New York

U.s.-born Chinese Workers In New York

Returns On Human Capital: Male Workers

Education, Occupation, And Earnings

Returns On Human Capital In The Enclave Economy

Chinatown: A Better Option

Self-employment As An Indicator Of Social Mobility

The Effect Of Education On Social Mobility

The Role Of English Proficiency In The Enclave

Material And Symbolic Compensations Of The Enclave

Some Pitfalls In Chinatown


7 The Other Half Of The Sky: Socioeconomic Adaptation Of Immigrant Women

Traditional Role Expectations

Immigrant Chinese Women In New York

The Impact Of Female Chinese Immigration

Characteristics Of Immigrant Chinese Women In New York

Labor Market Performance

Education, Occupation, And Earnings

Returns On Human Capital In The Enclave

Chinatown's Garment Workers


8 Residential Mobility And Ethnic Segregation

Growth In Chinatown: Neighborhood Take-over

Segregation Of The Chinese In New York


Results: Residential Segregation Of The Chinese

Results: Place Of Residence

Results: Neighborhood Characteristics

Residential Mobility And Resegregation

Development Of The Enclave As A Determinant

Family And Kinship Ties As Determinants

The Impact Of An Ethnic Housing Market


9 Conclusion: Rising Out Of Chinatown

Chinatown And Assimilation Of The Chinese

Theoretical And Practical Implications

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Chinatown: the socioeconomic potential of an urban enclave

Published By: Original publisher Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press. 1992. xxiv, 275 p. ill., map

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Min Zhou ; foreword by Alejandro Portes

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 1995. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Chinese Americans (NK06)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF External migration (167); Food service industries (265); Special clothing industries (295); Settlement patterns (361); Labor supply and employment (464); Ethnic stratification (563);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document The focus in this book is on the experience of recent (late 1980s) immigrant Chinese in New York City's Chinatown and how networks of the ethnic community facilitate their social mobility (p. xvii). This document also describes how Chinatown is understood by immigrant Chinese as a positive means of adaptation to their new country. Zhou analyzes and synthesizes much material from the U.S. census, bringing these data to bear on both theoretical and practical issues involving the mode of adaptation of the Chinese immigrants in the United States. The study consists of nine chapters, dealing with the author's methodology, the early history of Chinese immigration to the United States, changes in recent immigration patterns, the post-1965 immigration period, Chinatown's economic system, the male ethnic labor force in New York City, women in the labor force, the decentralization of Chinatown and residential mobilty of immigrant Chinese, and a summary of Zhou's results, highlighting how these findings fit into theoretical debates concerning immigrant incorporation.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 11

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. nk06-011

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 251-263) and index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1988-1989 (p. xx)

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Sociologist-4,5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. John Beierle

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). Variable

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) New York, N.Y., United States

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Chinese Americans


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