Swanton, John Reed, 1873-1958. Contributions to the ethnology of the Haida

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Explanation Of Alphabet Used In Rendering Indian Sounds.

I. — Introduction.

Ii. — Cosmic Notions.

Natural Phenomena.

Supernatural Beings.

Beings Of The Upper World.

Beings Of The Sea.

Beings Of The Land.

Patron Deities.

Fate Of The Dead.

Iii. — Shamanism And Witchcraft.

Iv. — Medicine.

V. — Customs, Taboos, Etc.






Hunting And Fishing.

Vi. — Games. 1



“flipping A V-shaped Object Over And Letting It Drop” (łg̣a Slła′ñ).

“carrying Each Other On Their Backs” (unhā′la-i).

K!ałdjamai′qa (meaning Doubtful).

“doing Secretly Inside Of Blankets” (k!îtg̣ai′slłgañ).

“a Woman's Pubic Bones” (g̣ao Skū′dji).

x̣atx̣adi′da (perhaps A Name For The Pieces Of Spruce-bark Used In It).

“knocking Something Over By Shooting” (tc!îtg̣ada′ldaña).

“arrows Stuck Up” (sq!ałnā′da).

“waving Things Before Each Other” (gu′tgi Daslx̣î′sg̣alañ).

Vii. — Social Organization.



Viii. — Haida History.

Introductory Remarks.

Period Of The Supernatural Beings.

The Raven Clan And Families.

The Ravens Of Atā′na.

The Ravens Of Sqē′na.

The Ravens Of Ninstints.

The Ravens Of Skedans.

The Ravens Of The Town Of Da′x̣ua.

The Ravens Of Skidegate Inlet.

The Ravens Of The West Coast.

The Ravens Of Kloo.

The Ravens Of Rose Spit.

The Ravens Of Cape Ball.

The Masset Inlet Branch Of The Rose Spit Ravens.

The North Island Raven Group.

The Kaigani.

The Pitch-town-people.

The Eagle Clan And Families.

The Eagles Of Ninstints.

Descendants From Property-making-a-noise.

The Eagles Of Kloo And Skedans.

The Eagles Of Cumshewa.

The People-of-sea-lion-town.

The Gîtî′ns.

The Sta′stas.


Contact With White Men.

Ix. — Prerogatives Of Families.


Raven Crests.

Eagle Crests.

Raven Crests.

Eagle Crests.



Personal Names.

Raven Clan.

Yā′gun-river-rear-town-people (r 15 C) And Rocky-coast-rear-town-people (r 15 B).

Masset-inlet-rear-town-people (r 15 A).

West-coast-rear-town-people (r 15 D).

Sand-people Of Alaska (r 20).

Cod-people (r 17).

Skî′daoqao (r 16).

Rocky-coast-point-town-people (r 14 A).

Masset-inlet-middle-town-people (r 19 A).

Eagle Clan.

Gî′tans-of-mā′man-river (e 13 A).

Gî′tans-of-river-sqadjî′ns (e 13 B).

S Ε Adjū′g̣ał-town-people (e 14).





X. — The Representation Of The Crest And Of Myth In Art.

Xi. — The Secret Society And The Potlatches.


General Remarks.

The Wā′łg̣al Potlatch.

The Dog-eating Spirit (nū′łam).

The Grisly-bear Spirit.

The Dress Spirit (k!ū′yan Sgā′nag̣wa-i).

Those Who Acted Gāgix̣ī′t.

The Club-bearing Spirits (ga Sī′djidas).

The Gambling-stick Spirit.

The Sī′k!a Potlatch.

Distribution Of Ceremonials Among Families.

Xii. — Abstracts Of Stories Obtained In Haida.

Skidegate Series. 1

1. Raven Travelling 2 (xō′ya Qagā′ñas).

2. A-slender-one-who-was-given-away (nañḷdā′slas).

3. The One They Abandoned For Eating The Flipper Of A Hair-seal (xō′tsl!a-i Nañ Tā′ga T!â′g̣asta L! Tc!ā′astagas).

4. Sacred-one-standing-and-moving (qō′ya-giaga′ndal), Stone-ribs (g̣odañxē′wat), And Upward (sī′xa). 2

5. Supernatural-being-who-travelled-about-naked (sg̣ā′na g̣ona′n Qās). 1

6. The-one-who-was-born-from-his-mother's-side (g̣ałdjū′ñ-g̣ei-nañ-l!-qēs).

7. The-one-always-travelling-behind-us (dī′dax̣ua-nañ-qā′g̣ons), Also Called Qonā′tc.

8. How Power-of-the-shining-heavens (sîns Sg̣ā′nag̣wa-i) Let Himself Be Born.

9. The-one-who-got-power-from-his-little-finger (slō′g̣ot Sg̣ā′nag̣wa-i).

10. Master-carpenter's War With Southeast.

11. Ła′gua Djî′na (also Called Łg̣añā′ Ε Ogaña). 1

12. The Canoe-people. 1

13. The One Who Was Hunting Birds In His Father's Village.

14. Tc!iñ Qā′-idjit. 1

15. The Story Of One Whose Sister Brought Food To Him From Among The Land-otter-people.

16. How Something Drew A String Of Eagles Into The Water.

17. He Who Destroyed His Nine Nephews.

18. One Who Saw An Eagle Town.

19. The Little Girl Who Fed A Raven.

20. The One They Abandoned Because He Was The First To Spear Sea-lions. 1

21. One Who Married A Killer-whale Woman.

22. He Who Was Abandoned By His Uncles.

23. Those Who Were Abandoned At Stasqa′os.

24. Noise-of-gambling-sticks (sînxē′gañō).

25. He Who Married The Daughter Of The Devil-fish Chief.

26. Mouldy-forehead (qolq!a′lg̣oda-i). 1

27. Those Who Were Fasting To Become Shamans. 2

28. Big-tail (k!ī′da-q!a-iqō′nas).

29. Tc!ā′awunk! A .

30. He Through Whom Ła′gua Spoke.

31. He-who-observed-the-clouds (yên-qä′tcîgît).

32. Ga′ndôx's-father.

33. Story Of Xā′gi (given On P. 76).

34. Djila′qons (given On Pp. 94 Et Seq.).

35. Story Of Nā-iku′n.

36. Story Of Those-born-at-skidegate-creek.

37. How The Seaward-sqoā′ładas Got The Names Of Their Gambling-sticks.

38. How One Of The Town-of-stasa′os-people Became Rich.

39. Story Of Those-born-at-skedans.

40. Stories About The Pitch-people.

41. How A Red Feather Pulled Up Some People From The Town Of Gu′nwa. 2

42. How A Person Was Helped By The Wolf's Son.

43. Gū′nanasîmgît. 1

44. Story Of Two Towns That Stood On Opposite Sides Of Nass River, Near Its Head. 2

45. He Who Loved Killing.

46. The Woman At Nass Who Fled From Her Husband.

47. The Rejected Lover. 1

48. He Who Gathered Food For The Eagles. 2

49. Qō′łk!ē. 3

50. Story To Accompany Bear-songs.

51. A Story For Children.

52. Another Story For Children.

53. How The Secret Societies Originated (see Pp. 156–158).

54. Haida Account Of The Secret Societies. (see Pp. 161–174).

55–75. War Stories.

Masset Series.

1. Raven.

2. A Moon Story. 1

3. The Blind Grisly-bear Hunter. 4

4. Qîñg A .

5. He-who-always-ate-ashes (ā′itxa′olda). 1

6. The Canoe-people. 2

7. Łagu Djîna′. 3

8. The Supernatural Beings Of Rose Spit.

9. Qōñ Kun And Nastō′.

10. The Sea-lion Hunter. 1

11. Tao Hill And His Brother.

12. Raven-fin (tc!īliā′las) And Łgū′sk!i.

13. Great-reef (qāḷ-qons).

14. North-wind And Southeast-wind.

15. The Flood At T!ē.

16. A Second Account Of The Flood At T!ē.

17. The Boy Who Fed The Eagle. 1

18. Supernatural-being-who-travelled-about-naked (s Ε Ā′na- Ε Ona′n-qaas). 1

19. The Sleep-power (qan-s Ε Ā′nawē). 2

20. Pecker (skastā′nlas).

21. The Great Spider.

22. Shell-labret (stī′tga-k!a′mala). 3

23. The S Ε Ā′ñg U .

24. Come (qā′l!a).

25. Ska′ndal.

26. Deer And Beaver. 1

27. War Between The Land-otter-people And The Black-bear-people.

28. The Woman In The Moon. 2

29. The Origin Of Mosquitoes.

30. The Origin Of Carved Posts.

31. The Carpenters: A Story Of The Gyitandō′ (a Tsimshian Family).

32. The Woman Who Married The “carpenter.”

33. Origin Of The Spear And Of Carving.

34. Those Who Were Blown Out To Sea From Nastō′.

35. Na′xanaxsî′mgyet. 1

36. The Woman Who Was Taken Away By The Black Bears. 1

37. The Grisly-bear Hunter.

38. The Man Who Became An Eagle. 2

39. The Land-otter-people.

40. The Man With The Fish-trap.

41. Qā′k!a.

42. Łdjañ And Guk!a′ña.

43. A Story Of The Town Of A′nagun (in The Tlingit Country).

44. The Man Who Was Carried Off By The Land-otters.

45. The Woman Who Married The Frog.

46. He Who Went To The Frog Town. 1

47. The Woman Who Married A Devil-fish.

48. The Two Shamans. 1

49. The Shaman At Island-point-town.

50. The Woman Who Became A Shaman.

51. The Famine At Tī′an.

52. The Supernatural Halibut.

53. About A Shaman At Fin-town.

54. A Story Of The Sta′stas.

55. Two Tlingit Shamans.

56. Two Stories Of Karta Bay.

57. A Shaman At Qaik!.

58. A Shaman At K!ulē′t (near Port Simpson).

59. Aqā′ne Q!ēs. 1

60. The Sea-bear (tcā′g̣an x̣ū′adja-i). 2

61. The Woman Who Married A Half-head.

62. The Last People Of Yā′gun Inlet. 1

63. The Women Of S Ε A′łdañ Kun.

64. The Hunter At Tī′an. 2

65. The Tree-spirit. 3

66. Nañ Sili Ε Ai′yas.

67. The Man Who Helped The Killer- Whale.

68. The Man Who Was Helped By Land-otters.

69. g̣a′og̣ał. 1

70. The Bear-hunters.

71. The Blind Man Who Became A Chief.

72. Sta′sta .

73, 74. The Copper Salmon (two Versions).

75. The Woman Who Suckled A Woodworm.

76. Wī′txao. 1

77. Git!ē′ks. 1

78. x̣a′na.

79. Skî′laowē.

80. The S Ε Agā′ñusîlî.

81. How The Killer-whale First Came To Be Used As A Crest.

82. The Łi′elañ-river-point-town-people.

83. Story Of Those-born-at Łi′elañ.

84. The Skiä′msm.

85. Iłdī′ni.

86. A War On Yā′gun River.

87. The Mischievous Boy.

88. How The Secret Society Began (translation Given In Full On Pp. 158–160).

89. An Account Of The Sî′k! A Potlatch (translation Given In Full On Pp. 176–180).

Kaigani Series.

1. Raven.

2. The Night-owl.

3. How Beaver Killed The Grisly-bears.

4. The Stolen Hair. 1

5. Adventures Of A Chilkoot Shaman.

6. Idjiqā′xdawa.

7. Sî′nagula. 1

8. The Two Shamans At Gā′ada River. 2

9. How A Shaman Got Power From A Dog-salmon.

10. The Wizard-uncle.

11. The Story Of Klinkwan.

12. The Youth Who Flew About In An Eagle's Skin. 2

13. Da′gu T!aol.

14. The Strong Man.

15. The Restored Gāgī′d. 1

16. A War With The Land-otters.

17. The Louse Town.

18. Swimming-land-otter.

19. The Minks.

20. The Giant Mouse.

21. The Gun Qadē′t.

22. The Monster Devil-fish.

23. The Woman Who Married A Devil-fish.

24. The Man Who Married A Frog. 1

25. The Monster Frog.

26. The Woman Who Received Supernatural Help. 1

27. The Outcasts.

28. The Stingy Husband.

29. The Blind Grisly-bear Hunter.

30. Story Of An Unfaithful Wife.

31. Second Story Of An Unfaithful Wife.

32. Third Story Of An Unfaithful Wife.

33. Qō′x°stawa Qā And His Grandson.

34. Adventures Among The Dinne (tca′ogus).

Xiii. — The Families Of The Haida.


Raven Clan.

Eagle Clan.

Towns 1 (see Maps).

Houses In The Principal Towns.


Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Contributions to the ethnology of the Haida

Published in: if part or section of a book or monograph Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History, New York --- Vol. V

Published By: Original publisher Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History, New York --- Vol. V Leiden ; New York: E. J. Brill ; G. E. Stechert & Co.. 1905. iii, 300 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication By John R. Swanton

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2017. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Haida (NE09)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Visual arts (5311); Lineages (613); Shamans and psychotherapists (756); Medical therapy (757); Life and death (761); Cosmology (772); Mythology (773); Eschatology (775); Spirits and gods (776); Revelation and divination (787); Magic (789); Ethnometeorology (821); Ethnogeography (823); Ethnozoology (825); Ethnopsychology (828); Puberty and initiation (881);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This account of the author's ten months among the Haida as part of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition is, altogether, a thorough account of the culture at the time. The main subjects discussed are history, religion, social organization, and language. Medicine, life cycle events, war, hunting and fishing, games, feasts, art, and settlements receive relatively brief coverage. A substantial part of the book is dedicated to transcriptions of stories and myths.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. ne09-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Cover title: The Haida of Queen Charlotte's Islands ; Reprint from vol. V, part 1 of the Jessup North Pacific Expedition Includes bibliographical references

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1900-1901

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Ian Skoggard; 2016

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1900-1901

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Graham Island, Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Haida Indians


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