Birket-Smith, Kaj, 1893-. The Chugach Eskimo

Table of Contents

Publication Information


The Danish-american Alaska Expedition 1933.

Native Informants.

The Chugach Country And Its Inhabitants

The Position Of Prince William Sound Within The Eskimo Area.

Discovery And Ethnological Exploration.

Geographical Characteristics Of Prince William Sound.

Territory And Tribes.

Economic Life

The Annual Cycle.


Sea-otter Hunting.


Hunting Of Land Mammals.

Bird Hunting.


Food Gathering.

Preparation Of Food.



Skin Boats And Dug-outs.

Land Transportation.




Household Utensils.

Clothing And Personal Adornment

Men's Dress.

Women's Dress.

Toilet And Ornaments.

Manufactures And Decorative Art

Men's Work.

Women's Occupations.

Decorative Art.

Social Life

Family And Kinship.

The Life Crises.

The Village Community.

A Secret Society (?).

Customary Law.

Intertribal Relations.

Games And Pastimes.


Intellectual Culture

Time Division.

Weather Lore.

Disease And Medicine.

Taboo And Magic.

The Universe And Its “owners”.

Souls, Spirits And Fabulous Beings.


Stories About Shamans.

The New Faith.


Sayings About Animals.

Local Traditions.

Historical Traditions.

How The Different Villages Started In Prince William Sound.

The Warriors From Matyangknat.

The Killing Of The Five Brothers From Kangiaq.

The Chief Of Atyat.

The Fight Between The Chugach And The Kodiak Eskimo.

The Fight With The Tanaina.

The Massacre At St. Elias Rock.

The Slaughter Of The Yakutat At Taukhtyuik.

The Soldiers That Ran Away From “rooshia”.

Legends And Myths.

The Little Porpoise.

The Woman Who Became A Spirit. I.

The Woman Who Became A Spirit. Ii.

The Mountain Goat Hunt In Sheep Bay.

The Orphan Boys Who Avenged Their Sister.

The Three Orphans Who Took Revenge.

The Deceived Husband.

The Woman Who Liked Liver 1

The Dwarfs On Hawkins Island.

The Fire Dwarfs.

The Man With Running Eyes.

Pukituq Who Turned Into All Kinds Of Animals.

The Blind Boy And The Loon.

The Girl Who Married A Dog.

How The Dog Came To Men.

The Man Who Married A Bear.

The Woman Who Married A Bear 1 .

Why The Brown Bears Are Hostile Towards Men 1 .

The Man And The Sea Lions 1 .

The Man Who Turned Into A Ground-squirrel 1 .

The Squirrel, The Swell, The Wolverine And The Lynx.

The Beavers.

The Thievish Mouse.

The Land Otter.

The Eagle-man.

The Old Woman And The Crows.

The Scoter's Guts.

The Brown Snipe And The Weather Which Changed Most Opportunely.

The Frog.

The Bullhead's Story.

Skunk-cabbage And Water-lily.

The Owner Of The Alders.

How Raven Brought The Daylight.

How Raven Brought Fire.

Raven And The Harlequin Duck.

Raven And The Owner Of The High Water. 1

How Raven Tricked The Bears.

The Bear That Escaped.

How The Blackfish Stole Raven's Wife.

Raven, The Bears, And The Whales.

Raven And The Whale 1 .

How Raven Fooled His Grandchildren.

The Sons Of The Sun 1 .

The Sun's Children.

The Man In The Moon.

The Moon.

The Man Who Met Imam-shua.

Analysis Of Chugach Culture

Regional And Chronological Differentiation Of Eskimo Culture.

Paleo-eskimo Elements: Archeological Evidence.

Paleo-eskimo Elements: Circumslantial Evidence.

Neo-eskimo Elements.

Circumpolar Elements Outside The Paleo- And Neo-eskimo Cultures.

Circumpacific Elements.

Northwest American Elements.

Elements Of Local, Uncertain, And European Origin.

The Building Of Chugach Culture.

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The Chugach Eskimo

Published By: Original publisher Kobenhavn: Nationalmuseets publikationsfond. 1953. ix, 261 p. ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Kaj Birket-Smith

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2005. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Alutiiq (NA10)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Flora (137); Comparative evidence (171); Prehistory (172); Traditional history (173); Historical reconstruction (174); Grammar (193); Phonology (194); Normal garb (291); Ornament (301); Dwellings (342); Tools and appliances (410); Division of labor by gender (462); Decorative art (531); Literary texts (539); Mythology (773); Spirits and gods (776);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This source is the result of the First Danish-American Expedition of 1933 in which the author represented the National Museum of Denmark; he was accompanied by Dr. Frederica de Laguna who represented the University of Pennsylvania University Museum. By making use of native informants, museum collections, excavations, the accounts of early explorers, and other written sources of information, the author has attempted to reconstruct the culture of the Chugach Eskimo. Included is information on: the discovery of Prince William Sound in 1778; the Russian, British, and Spanish expeditions; geographical features; climate; flora; fauna; territory occupied; economic life; the eight tribes of the Chugach; the holdings of museums (Berlin, Copenhagen); boats; housing; tool making; decorative art; men's and women's occupations; family and kinship; property system; games and sports; festivals and feasts; musical instruments; dancing; intertribal relations; death; crime; time division; ideas about the weather; disease theory and cures; taboo and magic; concepts of the universe; shamans; and religion and folklore. The author also shows the distribution of cultural elements, traces the origins of Chugach cultural elements, and provides an outline of culture history. As a result of this investigation, the author concludes that the culture of the Chugach is Eskimo, and is based on Paleo- and Neo-Eskimo foundations with some archaic and local traits which have been modified by foreign (Asian, Alaskan interior, American Northwest Coast) influences.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. na10-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. [252]-261)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1933

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-4,5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Heather Fellows ; Martin Malone ; 1976

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). July 20, 1741 to August 1933

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Chugach Eskimos, Prince William Sound, southeastern Alaska, United States

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Chugach Eskimos


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