Kronenberg, Andreas. The Teda of Tibesti

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Introduction

Research On The Teda

Economy

A. Economic Systems

1. Soil Cultivation (7)

2. Semi-nomadism

3. Nomadism (12)

Summary

B. Cultivated Plants

C. Animal Husbandry

D. Hunting And Gathering

E. Division Of Labor Between The Sexes

F. Trade

Periods Of Life

1. Pregnancy And Birth

2. Young Children

3. Young Girls (45)

4. Coming-of-age Ceremonies

A) Piercing The Lips Of Girls

B) Circumcision Of Boys ( Kaya )

5. Betrothal And Marriage

Summary

6. Divorced Women And Widows ( Ogu )

7. Death And Burial

Family Organization

1. Nuclear Family

2. Polygynous Marriages

3. Rules Of Marriage

4. Residence After Marriage

5. The Inner Structure Of The Family

A) Husband And Wife

B) Parents And Children

C) Parents-in-law

6. Inheritance

Kinship Terminology And Kinship System

1. Kinship Terminology

2. Kinship System

3. The Kinship System With Reference To Its Structure And Function

Kinship Groups

1. Lineage

2. Clan

A) Land Ownership ( Loo ) Of The Clans

B) Clan Marks ( Arbi )

C) Clan Taboos ( Yugote ): (117)

D) Clan Name

Survey Of The Teda Clans Not Entitled To The Rank Of Chief

1. Pseudo-autochthons

2. Clans Of Doza Origin

A) Fuktya (foctoa)

B) The Emmewia-(emméouia) Tedema (“sons Of The Stones”)

C) The Odobaya (“sons Of The Raven”) (125)

D) The Kerressa (keressa, Kéessa)

3. Clans Of Bidéyat (baele) Origin

A) The Tozoba

B) The Terintera (térintéré, Terrentere)

C) The Murdia

D) The Ederga (ederguia)

E) The Mogodi

D) The Maada

G) The Tega (tégua, Tegha)

4. Clans Of Daza Origin

A) The Daza

B) The Guboda (goboda, Gouboda)

C) The Tamercia (temeurtioua, Tamourtioua)

D) The Cioda (tschioda, Tchoda, Tchooda)

E) The Trama (torama, Terrama, Trahon)

F) The Dirsina

5. Clans Coming From The Fezzan (zeila)

A) The Tezerya (taizéra, Tezerea)

B) The Maadna-fortena (mahadéna, Mahazena)

The Chief (derdai) Of Tibesti And Clans Entitled To Chieftainship (qodmul)

A. The Office Of The Derdai Of Tibesti

1. Scope Of Duties

2. Emblems And Legal Status

3. Range Of Power Of The Derdai Of Tibesti

4. Income

5. The Installation Ceremony

B. Traditions About The Origin Of The Derdai Complex Of The Tomagra And Their Sub-clans

C. Clans With The Qodmul Right

1. Tomagra

2. Arna

3. The Derdekisia

D. Historical Data

E. Summary

Social Classes

1. The Blacksmiths (arabian: Haddad; Tedaga: Duudi; Guran: Azza )

2. Slaves

3. The Kamaya, Free Descendants Of Slaves

4. The Teda

5. Client Clans And Clans Related By Marriage

Common Law

1. Crimes Against Life

2. Offenses Against Health

3. Offenses Against Honor

4. Offenses Against Personal Freedom

5. Offenses Against Public Morals And Incest

6. Property Rights

7. Offenses Against Property Rights

8. Law Of Obligations

Islamic Influence And Syncretism Of Pre-islamic Ideas

A. Legends And Cults Of Saints

A) The Legend Of Oimado

B) Legend Of Cherif Salah Eridimi

C) The Legend Of Sididemi (sidi-edemi)

D) Legend Of Mary And The Child Jesus (211)

B. Conception Of The World, Remnants Of The Pre-islamic Religion Of The Teda And Ancient Cults

I. Conception Of The World

Ii. Higher Beings

1. Sabayin

2. Cannibals And Giants

3. The Devil (muši) And Onro, His Mother

Iii. Ideas About The Soul

1. Mare, The Dream Soul

2. The Breath Soul

3. The Heart

4. Attitude Towards The Dead

Iv. Various Ideas About Magic And Various Magic Practices

1. The Evil Eye

2. Gri-gri (amulets)

3. Omens

4. Remission Of Sins And Scapegoat

5. Ordeals

6. Sand Oracle

7. The Significance Of The Liver

V. Offerings And Ceremonial Meals

1. Agricultural Offerings

2. Sacrifice Offered For The Dead

3. Islamic Offerings And Festivals

4. Other Offerings

5. Erection Of Stones In Connection With Sacrifices And Ceremonial Meals

Some Structural Principles Of The Teda Culture

1. The Principle Of Individuality

2. Social Integrity

3. Stability Of Marriage

4. Equal Social Status Of Siblings With Their Parallel Male And Female Cousins

5. Exchange Of Gifts And Altruism

6. Plutocratic Principle

Culture-historical Aspects

A. Some Ethnological Problems Of The Teda Culture

1. The Sun-spring: A Legend Handed Down From Herodotus, Pliny And The Teda (253)

2. The Moon Cult

6. The Problem Of Totemism

7. Matriarchy

8. Face Veil Of The Men

B. Survey Of Theories Of The Origin And Ethnic Classification Of The Teda

1. The Teda Are Berbers

2. Identifying The Tubu With The Garamant

Identification Of The Teda With The Troglodyte Ethiopians

4. Identifying The Teda With The Tehenu

5. Derivation Of The Tubu From Ancient Egypt

6. Tubu And Kanuri Are Descendants Of Libyan Peoples

7. They Are Likewise A Tribe Of The “tedo-kanuri”

C. How The Teda Became A People

I. Assumptions

Ii. The Strata

1. The Pseudo-autochthons

2. Influence Of Historical Peoples From The Mediterranean Region

3. Christian Influences

Supplement

A. Games

1. The Field Game “agra”

2. Fos

3. Derdemi

4. Tokuy Ney (the Jackal And The Goats)

5. Camur Tiresri

6. Diuciresri

B. Sand Oracle

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The Teda of Tibesti

Published By: Original publisher Horn-Wien, Austria: Verlag Ferdinand Berger. 1958. HRAF ms: 1, 6, 144, 28 l. [Original: 14, 160 p., 17 end plates] ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Andreas Kronenberg

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2010. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Teda (MS22)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Clans (614); Identification (101); Informants (115); Reviews and critiques (114); Mythology (773); Sacred objects and places (778); Cult of the dead (769); Ethnic stratification (563); Slavery (567); Nuptials (585); Family relationships (593); Historical reconstruction (174); Historical reconstruction (174); Chief executive (643); Pastoral activities (233); Marriage (580);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This source is an ambitious ethnographic work. It contains accounts of the traditional history and data on economic, ritual, religious, legal, family and social aspects of life. The author compares information he gathered with other published works on the Teda and attempts to resolve inconsistencies among them.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 2

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. ms22-002

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English translation from German

Note: Translation of: [Die Teda von Tibesti] Includes bibliographical references Translated for the HRAF files by Frieda Schütze

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1953-1954

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-4,5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Jan Simpson ; John Beierle ; 1981-1982

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1850-1958

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Tibesti, Chad

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Teda (African people)//Tibbu (African people)

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