Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.
Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records
Levine, Donald Nathan, 1931-
Wax & gold: tradition and innovation in Ethiopian
Published By: Original publisher
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1965. xvi, 315 p.
By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication
Donald N. Levine
HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.:
Human Relations Area Files, 1998. Computer File
Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis.
Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF
Chief executive (643);
Adolescent activities (883);
Social relationships and groups (571);
Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document
In this book Levine analyzes traditional and transitional
Amhara culture from four different vantages: historical, sociological, anthropological and
psychological. Each aspect of traditional culture touched on by the author is considered in
light of Ethiopia's transition to a modern state. The problems facing Ethiopia as a
developing nation are pointed out and some suggestions are made concerning their solution.
Examined in depth are the roles of Amhara peasants, elites, intellectuals, adolescents,
clergy and military. The education and socialization process and the political process are
examined extensively to determine in what ways traditional patterns conflict with or
contribute to the modernization process. In the last two chapters, the author delves into
the psychological development of the Amhara personality. More specifically, these last two
chapters are concerned with the personality factors which the author considers inhibitive
of creative leadership, solidary action and social progress. Field methods included
analysis of literary texts and oral traditions, use of questionnaires, projective tests,
interviews and participant observation. Levine spent from 1958 to 1961 carrying out field
research, serving part of that time as a lecturer in the University College of Addis
Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents
Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits.
Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs.
Language: Language that the document is written in
Includes bibliographical references (p. 287-302)
Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document
Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data
Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection.
Helen Gunsher Bornstein ; John Beierle ; 1972
Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date).
Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site)
LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings
Amhara (African people)