Bhila, H. H. K.. Trade and politics in a Shona kingdom: the Manyika and their African and Portuguese neighbors, 1575-1902

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Chapter One Political And Economic Environment

Physical Features And Climate

Settlement: Archaeological And Documentary Evidence

Migratory Movements

Relations With Munhumutapa

Political System And Organisation

System Of Tribute

Election Procedure

The Army

Production For Consumption




Honey And Fruit

Pre-colonial Industries

Pottery And Cloth





Location Of Mines

The Mining Process



Chapter Two Early Portuguese Contacts And Penetration Of The Kingdom Of Manyika 1506–1695

Civil Wars To 1528

Portuguese-swahili Rivalry

Trade During The Sixteenth Century

Political Aggression Of Manyika

Feiras In Manyika

The Feira Of Masekesa

Other Important Feiras And Gold Mines In Manyika During The Seventeenth Century

Feiras In The Neighbouring Kingdoms

The Network Of Trade


Chapter Three Rozvi Sovereignty In Manyika 1695–1795

The Conquest Of 1693–95

Impact Of The 1693–5 War On Manyika Society And Economy

Tribute Arrangements

The Treaty Of Friendship

Rozvi Monopoly Of External Trade



Chapter Four The State Of Trade In Southern Zambezia: 1695–1795

The Ivory Trade To The West Of Manyika

Portuguese Economic Policy In Manyika During The Second Half Of The Eighteenth Century

Barwe Politics As An Obstacle To The Ivory Trade

Portuguese Attempts To Improve Trade

Manyika Economic Policy



Chapter Five Portuguese Trade And The Civil Wars In Manyika: 1795–1830

The Reign Of King Chipunza (1795–6)

Nyarumwe's First Reign (1796–1807)

The Reign Of Nyangombe: His Struggle With Nyarumwe And Nyamutota (1807–13)

The Reign Of Nyamutota (1813–18)

Second Reign Of Nyarumwe: 1818–22

Manyika Relations With The Rozvi (1795–1830)

The Shift In Trade



Chapter Six The Nguni Interlude In Manyika History: 1822–1835

The First Phase Of Nguni Contact With Manyika And The Expulsion Of The Portuguese From The Feira Of Masekesa 1822–35

Relations Between The Gaza-nguni And The Manyika: 1835–90


Chapter Seven The Changing Pattern Of Trade Between The Manyika And Their Neighbours 1835–90

Old Feira-places As Centres Of Informal Afro-portuguese Trade

The Increasing Importance Of Trade In Ivory And Fire-arms

Waggon Trade

The Resilience Of Itinerant Gold-traders


Chapter Eight The Gaza-nguni Incursions And Reassertion Of Portuguese Authority In The Hinterland Of Manyika

The Rise Of Power Of Manuel Antonio De Souza As A Capitao-mor

The Changing Character Of The Capitao-mor

Revival Of Portuguese Influence In The Interior

The Diplomacy Of De Souza And Manyika Politics Of Survival


Chapter Nine Tendai Mutasa: Land And Mineral Concessions And The War Of 1896–7

The Nature Of The Debate Concerning The Shona War Of 1896–7

The Mini-scramble For Manyika

The Impact Of Monopoly Capitalism On Manyika Society And Economy


Chapter Ten Conclusion

Initiative And Underdevelopment

Emergence Of The Peasantry

The Economic Effects Of Colonialism


Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Trade and politics in a Shona kingdom: the Manyika and their African and Portuguese neighbors, 1575-1902

Published By: Original publisher Longman: Harlow, Essex. 1982. 16, 291 p. maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication H.H.K. Bhila

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2014. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Shona (FS05)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF History (175); External trade (439); External relations (648); Chief executive (643); Commercial facilities (366); Retail marketing (443); Eschatology (775); Executive household (644); Revolution (669); Warfare (726); External relations (648); Missions (797); Information sources listed in other works (113);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This source, a revision of the author's doctoral dissertation, provides a complete cultural history of the Shona. It concentrates on the economic history of the kingdom of Manyika in reference to neighboring kingdoms following the disintegration of their empire in the early sixteenth century. The research was primarily archival; concerned with technical problems of trade, the impact of long-distance trade in the southern Zambezi region, and the ramifications of internal and external politics. There is also considerable information on non-Shona peoples (e.g. the Nguni) and early Portuguese traders.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 3

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. fs05-003

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 263-284)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document no date

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Historian-4,5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. John Beierle; 1991

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1575-1902

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) eastern Zimbabwe and central Mozambique

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Manyika (African people)--Commerce//Manyika (African people)--Politics and government//Zimbabwe--History


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