Baxter, P. T. W.. The Azande, and related peoples of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and Belgian Congo

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Part I The Azande Group Of Tribes

I. General



Location 5



Characteristics Of The Zande Language 20

Physical Characteristics

Temperament, Manners, And Habits


Tribal Marks And Personal Ornamentation


Ii. An Outline Of Zande History

The Indigenes And The Sudanic Invasions

The Mangbetu

The Avungara Invasion

The Ambomu

Traders And Slavers

European Conquest


Internal Development

The Zande Scheme

Iii. Classification Of Incorporated, Subject, And Neighbouring Peoples

A. Peoples Ruled And Influenced By The Azande

(i) Peoples Completely “ Zandeized ”

(ii) Peoples Ruled And Greatly Influenced By The Azande

(iii) Peoples Slightly Influenced By Or Neighbouring The Azande, But In General Politically Separate

(iv) Notes On Other Names Relating To Zande Or “zandeized” Populations

B. Peoples Ruled And Influenced By The Mangbetu

Iv. Ecology 1

Mode Of Life

The Agricultural Year

Food Production And Diet

The Homestead

Division Of Labour And The Position Of Women

V. The Formal Political Structure Of Zande Society

The Political Authority Of The Avungara



Political And Social Status

Ambomu And Auro


Status Of Women



The Avungara Myths

The Legal Authority Of The Avungara Chiefs

The “legal” Importance Of The Zande Oracle

Economic Organization

Military Organization

Vi. Social And Kinship Organization

Zande Clans

Incest And Exogamy Rules





Extra-marital Relations









Avungara Funerary Rites 65

Vii. Witchcraft, Oracles, And Magic

The Nature Of Witchcraft

Witchcraft As The Cause Of Misfortune

Witchcraft And Moral Notions

Mechanism Of Witchcraft


Action Of Murdered Victim’s Kin

The Conscious Agency Of Witchcraft

Dreams And Witchcraft

Gall-bladder Men And Other Agencies Of Misfortune

Witch-doctors 26

Leeches, Leechcraft, And Sickness

Classification Of Diseases


Oracles 43

The Benge Or Poison Oracle

Consultation Of The Poison Oracle

The Administration Of Benge

The Termites Oracle (dakpa)

The Rubbing-board Oracle (iwa) 62

The Three-sticks Oracle (mapingo) 66

Types Of Magic



Associations For The Practice Of Magic 73

The Mani Society

The Biri Society

The Wanga Society

Viii. Zande Religion 1

The Tuka

The Atoro

The Agalisa

Mbori—the Supreme Being

Rain Stoppers


Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The Azande, and related peoples of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and Belgian Congo

Published in: if part or section of a book or monograph Ethnographic survey of Africa, East Central Africa, part 9, edited by Daryll Forde

Published By: Original publisher Ethnographic survey of Africa, East Central Africa, part 9, edited by Daryll Forde London: International African Institute. 1953. x, 152 p. map

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication P. T. W. Baxter and Audrey Butt

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 1999. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Azande (FO07)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF History (175); External trade (439); Localized kin groups (618); Tribe and nation (619); Community heads (622); Status, role, and prestige (554); Military organization (701); Sorcery (754); Revelation and divination (787); Magic (789);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This document, written by two professional anthropologists from secondary materials, gives a succinct account of several aspects of Azande ethnography, with special emphasis on culture history, relations with neighboring tribes, and subject peoples, political structure of Zande society, social and kinship organizations (including marriage), witchcraft, oracles and magic, and Zande religion. Some very brief information is also presented on location of the Zande, population size, language, dress, physical characteristics and ornamentation. Material culture is covered very little, if at all, and only the briefest mention is given to Zande religious ceremonials.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 56

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. fo07-056

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Component part(s), monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references and index Only pages i-x, 11-96, 137-152 and end map facing p. 152 are included

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document no date

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologists-4

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. John Beierle ; 1962

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). not specified

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Sudan and Democratic Republic of the Congo

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Zande (African people)


Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the links below to export the citation to your chosen bibliographic manager.

Export a Citation