Itkonen, Toivo Immanuel, 1891-. The Lapps in Finland up to 1945. Vol. 2

Table of Contents

Publication Information

21. Hunting

1. Active Hunting Methods

2. Passive Hunting Methods

22. Reindeer Breeding

1. The Wild Reindeer

2. The Reindeer

3. Reindeer Names

4. Reindeer-breeding From 1600 To 1800

5. Reindeer-breeding Today

23. The Dog

24. Cattle Breeding And Agriculture

25. Trade

26. Yearly Migrations

27. Society

28. Legal Practices Of The Lapps In The 17th And 18th Centuries According To Records

29. The Family

30. Mythology And Later Superstitions

1. The Gods

2. Seitas And Sacred Places

3. The Fairies

4. The Sorcerer


Upper Zone

Middle Zone

Lower Zone


Upper Zone

Middle Zone

Lower Zone


Uppermost Zone

Second Zone

Third Zone

Fourth Zone

Lowest Zone

5. Human Beings In Life And After Death

6. Celestial Bodies And Natural Phenomena

7. Beliefs Concerning The Animal Kingdom And Game

8. Beliefs Concerning The Hunt

9. Other Beliefs

Church Offerings

31. Birth And Childhood

32. Courtship Customs And Wedding Ceremonies

33. Greeting

34. Games, Feats Of Strength And Pastimes

35. Diseases And Methods Of Curing

36. Units Of Measure

1. Linear And Cubic Measures

2. The Calendar (äi'ge-lohkku).

37. Register Of Names

1. Personal Names

Lapp Names

Finnish-karelian Names

2. Place Names

38. Popular Culture

The Pike's Joiku

The Pearl-owl's Joiku

The Wolf's Joiku

The Bear's Song


The Young Maiden Betrothed In Another Parish


Jouni's Niila

Pienni's Antti



The Inari-reindeer

Hentti's Matti

My Heart Is Warm

Wooing Song

The Fiancée's Song

Taatsi's Sacred Stone


Lapland's Natives

The Karlebotn-market

4. Proverbs (s[unknown] Adne-v[unknown] Ad'd'âsâh) And Sayings.

Maxims (juraâ-sänih)

Sayings (i. Kuod[unknown][unknown] Ustuvvâh) And Phrases

5. Riddles (ar'vâdusâh)

6. Weather Forecasts (i.[unknown] S[unknown] Onâ Ov'aâze[unknown] )

The Weather Will Be Fine When:

There Will Be Rain If:

Snowfall Or Snowstorms Are Forecast If:

There Is Thaw In Winter If:

39. Origins Of Lapp Culture

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The Lapps in Finland up to 1945. Vol. 2

Published By: Original publisher Porvoo, Helsinki: Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö. 1984, c1948. p. ill., maps [HRAF ms.: i, 1160 p.]

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Toivo Immanuel Itkonen

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 1996. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Saami (EP04)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Pastoral activities (233); Literary texts (539); Personal names (551); Sickness (750); Ideas about nature and people (820); Reproduction (840);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This study consists of volume two of T. I. Itkonen's classic work on traditional Saami society in Finland. (The first volume of this monograph is also in this database). The two volumes together, translated into English from the original Finnish, provide a detailed study of Saami material culture from the early sixteenth to the mid-twentieth century. The present document presents an abundance of data on the food quest (particularly hunting and fowling), reindeer herding and pastoral activities, seasonal migrations, dogs, cattle breeding, trade, agriculture, mythology and religion, concepts of life and death, ideas about nature and man, reproduction, child care, marriage, etiquette, games and pastimes, diseases and curing practices, units of measurement, personal and place names, tales and legends, songs, riddles and proverbs, and weather lore. Social organization and social structure is very lightly covered in this work.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 17

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. ep04-017

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English translation from Finnish

Note: Translation of: Suomen lappalaiset vuoteen 1945, Ensimmäinen Osa.|The original Finnish text is not included in this database Includes bibliographical references Translated from the Finnish for the Human Relations Area Files by Olga Guemati and Elisabeth Perez-Roman

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1913-1947

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. John Beierle ; 1994

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). variable

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Finland

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Sami (European people)


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