Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.
Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records
Archer, W. G. (William George),
Tribal law and justice: a report on the Santal
Published By: Original publisher
New Delhi: Concept. 1984. 3 v. in 1 (xxxvi, a-k, 741 p.)
By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication
W. G. Archer ; with an introduction by K. S. Singh
HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.:
Human Relations Area Files, 1998. Computer File
Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis.
Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF
Mode of marriage (583);
Informal in-group justice (627);
Legal norms (671);
Sex and marital offenses (684);
Judicial authority (692);
Organized ceremonial (796);
Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document
Archer, a Deputy Commissioner of Santal Parganas during the
period of December 1942-June 1945, presents in this document an analysis of Santal tribal
law which he observed in operation during the period of his administration. The work is
divided into three major parts. Part I discusses civil law in Santal society, based in
large part on the application of customary law to various offenses through the judicial
system (i.e., the village courts and the Court of Five MANJHIS). Part II describes various
ramifications of the application of BITLAHA sanctions to criminal justice. BITLAHA is the
Santal term used to describe a mass punishment for major tribal offenses. Part III of this
report deals with the structure of the judicial system in tribal regions (with special
reference to the Santal Parganas), showing in effect the erosion of customary law and their
supercession by statutory law (p. xvii). This section contains a number of suggestions by
the author on how the Santal judicial system could be improved. In addition to the above,
this study also contains much information on the right of men and women in the society,
marriage and divorce, birth, naming customs, sickness, and death, relevant to the period
Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents
Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits.
Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs.
Language: Language that the document is written in
'Published under the Authority of the Bitlaha
Government' Includes bibliographical references (p. 734-741)
Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document
December 1942-June 1945
Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data
Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection.
John Beierle ; 1996
Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date).
Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site)
Santal Parganas District, Bihar, India
LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings
Santal (South Asian people)