Mukherjea, Charulal. The Santals

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Chapter 1 Santal Genesis And Migration

Theories Of Pre-dravidian Immigration

Santal Genesis And Exodus 1

Historical Basis Of Santal Migration In The Santal Parganas 3

In Other Places


Chapter Ii Habitat And Population

Their Language

Social Environment


Bihar And Orissa

Feudatory States


Chapter Iii Economic Life

Santal Cottages




Furniture And Other House-hold Articles





Musical Instruments

The Economic Background Of Santal Life


Chapter Iv Social Fabric

Division Of Labour

Tribal Division



Clan Exogamy And Totcmism

Clans And Sub-clans

1. Hansdak’

2. Murmu

3. Kisku

4. Hèmbròm

5. Màr[unknown]n[unknown]di

6. Sòrèn

7. [unknown]tu[unknown]du

8. Baske

9. Besra

10. Pànnria

11. Còn[unknown]rèn

12. Gòndwar

Clan Santak (signs)


Untitled Section: ...

Chapter V Kinship Organisation

Jàtià Pe[unknown]ra And Bòndbu Pe[unknown]ra

Relationship Terms

Rights And Duties Of Certain Relations

Prohibited Degrees Of Marriage

Relationship Taboos

Relations Who Can Joke With One Another

Relationship By Courtesy

Chapter Vi Tribal Polity

The Limbs Of Law

Village-assembly And Its Powers And Functions

Desh-pròdhan And His Inter Village Council

Supreme Court Of The Santals

Supreme Council At Mòkòrbasi

Social Taboos: Punishment For Their Breaches

“bi[unknown]tlahà” In The Santal Parganas 1

At Mayurbhanj

Restoration To The Tribal Fold


Santal Customary Law

Santal Customary Law At Mayurbhanj

Adoption (pushapo)



Legal Status Of Santal Women

Legal Status Of Santal Women In The Santal Parganas


Chapter Vii From Birth To Death


Narta (name-giving Ceremony)


Cicatrization (sika)

Tatto Marks On Women (or Kboda)



1. Orthodox Marriage

Selection Of Bride

Omen Reading

Betrothal (takacal)

Rates Of Bride-price (gònò[unknown]n)

Preparation For Wedding

Seta Bapla, Daiban Bapla And Matkòm Bapla



Bridegroom’s Return Home

Idi Aguruaal 1 (bride’s Return To Her Father’s Home)

2. Bàriàt Ate Bapla

3. Tu[unknown]nki Dipli

Ii. Love Marriage

Iii. Sanga (widow Marriage)

Iv Minor Marriages


Funeral Ceremonies

Telnahan Or Chotokaman (preliminary Purification)

Jiling Dahar (going To The River Damodar With The Bones)

Bhandan Or Final Purification

Ideas Of Heaven And Hell


Chapter Viii The Cycle Of Santal Festivals

Eròk’ Sim (june)

Hàrià[unknown]r Simko (july) 1

I[unknown]ri Gundli Nànwàni (the Millet Festival—august)

Gamah Purnima (august)

Karam Pòròb (september-october)

Jantha[unknown]r (november)

Sobrae, The Winter Harvest Home

Sobrae At Mayurbhanj

Mòkòr (sakrat 1 Mid-january.)

Magh Sim 1 (january-february)

Baba, The Santal ‘sal’-blossom Festival. 3

Jòm Sim.

Pata (santal Còròk In Mid-april).


Chapter Ix Religion Of The Santals

Santal Deities And Spirits

Supreme Deity (thàkur Jiu, Siñ Bo[unknown]nga Or Dhòròm)

Village Spirits

Hill Spirits

Basuki Or Basumata

Ancestor Spirits

Mischievous Spirits

Household Deity (o[unknown]rak’ Bo[unknown]nga) And Secret God (abge Bo[unknown]nga)

Selection Of Village Priest

Religion Of The Santals

Chapter X Magic And Witch-craft

To Remove Drought

To Remove Village Illness

Belief In Evil Eye


Origin Of Witch-craft

How Do The Witches Exercise Their Spell

A Witch Tradition

How Wicth-craft Began Among Santals

Different Grades Of Witches 1

Is Witch-craft Inborn?

Ojha (witch-doctor)


Chapter Xi Santal Folk-lore

1. The Woman And Doma

2. A Ghost Who Sought A Bride

3. A Man And His Second Wife

4. The Woman And Her Promise

5. A Lad And His Animal Friends

6. The Strange Medicine

7. A Jackal Who Was Too Clever

8. Jackal Outwitted

9. A Witch Story

10. Fate

11. Gumda’s Might

A General View Of Santal Folk-tales *

Animal Stories

Tales Of Bongas

Witch-craft Stories

Fondness For Verbal Quibbles And Metaphors

Santal Folk-poetry

Religious And Semi-religious Songs

Marriage Songs

Songs Of Love

Love Of Flowers And Birds

Songs Of Birds

Other Songs

Santal Dances

Lag[unknown]ren Ènèc’

Dò[unknown]n Ènèc’

Jhikà Ènèc’

Jàtur Ènèc’

Riñja Ènèc’

[unknown]da[unknown]n[unknown]ta Ènèc’

[unknown]dahar Ènèc’

Baha Ènèc’

Chapter Xii The Santals In A Changing Civilisation

The Santal Character

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The Santals

Published By: Original publisher Calcutta: A. Mukherjee & Co., Private Ltd.. 1962. xvi, 459 p., plates ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication By Charulal Mukherjea

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 1998. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Santal (AW42)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This volume presents a general synthesis of Santal culture and society based upon the literature and the author's own field work in Mayurbhanj and Santal Parganas. Attention is paid throughout to regional differences in the culture. Because of the approach, no single subject is treated in depth; however, the treatment is good and the data seem reliable.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 3

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. aw42-003

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes index A glossary of the Santali terms most used in the book ins indexed in Glossary (104).

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document ca. 1933-1939

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Lawyer, educator-4,5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Sigrid Khera ; 1969-1970

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). not specified

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) India

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Santal (South Asian people)


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