Gourou, Pierre, 1900-. The peasants of the Tonkin delta: a study in human geography

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Introduction (1)

Part One Physical Surroundings

Chapter One The Relief Of The Delta

I.—the Mount Ainous Rim And The Hills Of The Delta

A.—the Location Of The Delta With Respect To The Mountains Of The Back Country.

B.—the Western Border

C.—the Northeast Border

D.—the Terraces Of The North

E.—the Hills Of The Delta

Ii.—the Alluvial Relief

A.—the Northwest Of The Delta

B.—the East Of The Delta

C.—the Low Lands Of The West

D.—the Coastal Region

E.—the Present Evolution Of The Shoreline

Iii.—evolution Of The Delta's Relief

A. Historical Data

B.—the Geological Hypotheses

C.—the Soils

Chapter Ii The Climate

I. Temperatures

Ii. The Rains


Rain Distribution Through The Year


Chapter Iii Water

I.—water And Its Dangers

A.—red River

B.—the Thai Binh

C.—the Tides

Ii.—the Dikes

A.—the Dikes Of The Red River

B.—the Other Dikes

Iii. Drainage

Iv.—the Coastal Zones

V.—irrigation Proper

A.—peasant Irrigation

B.—the Irrigation Networks

Second Part The Peasant Population

Chapter One History Of The Peopling Of The Tonkin Delta

I.—annamese Historical Works

Ii.—other Annamese Sources

Iii. Place Names

Iv.—family Names

V.—sources Other Than Local

Vi.—the Peopling Of The Delta

Chapter Ii The Density Of The Population

I.—the Census Of 1931

Ii.—the Total Rural Population

Iii.—the Distribution Of The Population

A.—the Map Of Densities

B.—the Types Of Density

C.—density Zones

Chapter Iii The Movements Of The Population

I.—difficulties Of This Study

A.—ancient Censuses.

B. — Present Difficulties

Ii.—the Evolution Of The Population According To Official Statements (1)

Iii.—birth Rate And Death Rate

A. According To The Registry

B. —other Sources Of Information

C.—the Increase Of The Population

Iv.—colonization (settlement) In Tonkin

A.—settlement Inland

B.—colonization Of The Marine Beds

V. — Peasant Emigration

Vi.—seasonal Migrations To The Interior Of The Delta

Chapter Iv The Villages

I. — Concentration Of The Population

Ii. — Area And Population Of The Communes

A. — The Area Of The Communes

B. — The Territory Of The Communes

C. — The Population Of The Villages

Iii. — Habitat

A. — Relief Villages

B. — The Other Types Of Villages

C.—villages Loosely And Tightly Knit.

Iv.—components Of The Village

A.—the Hedge And Access To The Village.

B.—the Interior Of The Villages

C.—pools And Wells

D.—public Buildings And Religious Matters

V.—life In The Village

A.—political Life

B.—social Life

Chapter V Houses

I.—the Various Social Types Of Houses

A.—medium Well-to-do Houses.

B—brick Houses Roofed With Tiles (well-to-do Houses)

C.—poor Houses

Ii.—components Of The House

A.—the Plan

B.—magic And Religious Influences

C.—the Frame

D.—the Walls

E.—the Roofs


A.—monumental Structures

B.—evolution Of The Annamese House

C.—comparison With The Dwellings Of The Mountainous Region

Third Part The Means Of Existence Of The Tonkinese Peasants

First Chapter Agriculture


A.—parceling Of The Soil

B.—the Proprietors

C.—communal Lands

D.—money Value Of The Land

E.—kinds Of Tenure And Credit

Ii.—intensity Of Agriculture

A.—the Agricultural Calendar

B.—agricultural Techniques


A.—the Important Of Rice

B.—the Different Crops


Iv.—the Secondary Crops

A.—rice Substitutes



D.—various Edible Crops

E.—industrial Crops

V.—farm Animals.


A.—the Peasant And Fishing

B.—fish Culture

C.—specialized Fishermen (fresh Water Fishing).

D.—the Floating Villages

E.—ocean Fishing

F.—salt Production

Chapter Ii The Village Industries

I.—distribution Of The Industrial Population

Ii.—the Different Industries

A.—the Textile Industries.

B.—the Food Industries.


D.—wood Industries

E.—diverse Industries

Iii.—factors In The Distribution Of Industries

Iv.—characteristics Of The Peasant Industries

A.—family Labor

B.—hand Manufacture

C.—various Aspects Of The Division Of Labor

D.—causes Of Division Of Labor

E.—the Tendency Toward Specialization And Monopoly

V.—the Evolution Of The Village Industries

Chapter Iii Exchange Transactions

I.—the Rural Markets.

Ii.—the Small Professional Traders


I.—beauties Of The Delta.

Ii.—the Principal Regions

Iii.—closed Economy And Standard Of Living

Iv.—the Problem Of Overpopulation

V.—the Peasant Civilization

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The peasants of the Tonkin delta: a study in human geography

Published By: Original publisher Paris: Les éditions d'Art et d'Histoire. 1936. HRAF ms.: 1-889 p. [original: 666 p.] [incomplete] ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication [by] Pierre Gourou

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2000. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Vietnamese (AM11)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Fishing (226); Tillage (241); Cereal agriculture (243); Land use (311); Dwellings (342); Settlement patterns (361); Real property (423); Internal trade (438);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document Gourou conducted field research for this classic ethnography between 1927 and 1935, particularly 1931-1935. Gourou was a professor of geography in the University of Bordeaux. The 'twofold interest' of the study lies in the fact that the Tonkin Delta -- differing from the rest of Indochina -- was heavily populated, and that it was almost exclusively inhabited by peasants. The conditions and the causes of this heavy population are minutely explored. The natural uniformity of the deltaic country contributed to create a 95 percent rural population, whose life centered around the village. It produced little, consumed little, and lived in a closed economy. Industry had not developed much beyond the familial level. The book is divided into three main parts: I. Physical surroundings, II. The peasant population, and III. The means of existence of the Tonkinese peasants.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. am11-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Component part(s), monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English translation from French

Note: Translation of: [Les paysans du delta tonkinois : étude de géograpie humaine]|This document consists of excerpts Includes bibliography Translated from the French for the HRAF files by Richard R. Miller ca. 1953. Omitted: pages 603-646, 653-660, and in the translated text, end-pocket maps of French edition

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1927-1935

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Natural Scientist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Annemarie Holborn ; 1953; John Beierle ; 2006

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1900 -1935

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) northern (BAC BO) Vietnam

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Vietnamese


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