Schram, Louis, 1883-. The Monguors of the Kansu-Tibetan frontier: Part III. Records of the Monguor clans : history of the Monguors in Huangchung and the chronicles of the Lu family

Table of Contents

Publication Information

I. History Of The Monguor Clans In Huangchung

Geographical Conditions

The Population Of Huangchung At The Time Of The Conquest By The Mongols

Huangchung During The Tang Period

Huangchung During The Wu Tai (five Dynasties) Period, 907–960

Disintegration Of The Shat'o Nation And Huangchung And East Kansu

First Data About Buddhism In Huangchung

Huangchung During The Sung Period, 960–1280

Several Ten Thousands Of Uighurs Fled To Huangchung

Hsining In The Heyday Of Its Glory

Moslem Traders In Hsining

Buddhism In Huangchung

Shamanism And Manicheism

Settlement Of The Uighurs

Uighurs And Subjects Of T'u-ssu

Settlement Of Uighurs And Shat'o In East Kansu

Saro And Shera Uighurs

Ma-t'i Ssu, The Horseshoe Monastery

Ethnography Of Huangchung And East Kansu

Collapse Of The T'u-fan Kingdom Of Huangchung

Huangchung During The Yuan Dynasty

Conquest Of Huangchung By The Ming

Conquest Of Kansu

Surrender Of Mongol Princes And Officials

General Surrender Of The Monguor Officials In Huangchung

Who Were The Officials Who Surrendered In A Group In 1371?

Ming Policy Toward Surrendering Tribes

Ancestors Of The Li T'u-ssu Clan

Historical Value Of The Documents

The Spirit Way Steles

The Cemetery Of Hsiang T'ang

History Of Huangchung And The T'u-ssu During The Ming Dynasty (1368–1644)

Bureau For Exchange Of Tea Against Horses

Surrender Of Tribes In Huangchung

1386 Marks A New Era In Huangchung

First Lamasery Built By Emperor—creation Of Board Of Lamas

Death Of Emperor T'ai Tsung (hung-wu), 1398

Monguors Of Huangchung During The Reign Of Emperor Ch'eng Tsung (yung Lo), 1403–1424

T'u-ssu Li Yin

Huangchung T'u-ssu Under The Subsequent Emperors

Height Of Oirat Hegemony

T'u-ssu Li Wen

Hegemony Of The Western Mongols

Ruin Of Huangchung

Revolt Of Tibetan Tribes In Huangchung

Help Sent By The Emperor

The Monguors And The Fall Of The Ming Dynasty

Huangchung Monguors And Their T'u-ssu During The Ch'ing Dynasty (1644–1911)

Revolt Of 1723–1724

The T'u-ssu Had Participated In Quelling The Revolt

Persecution Of Christians

Huangchung Reorganized

First Mohammedan Revolt—wahhabism

Yen Ch'a Hui Revolt

New Sect In Hsining

Tibetan Revenge Upon The Mongols Of Kokonor

Revolt Of The East Kansu And Huangchung Mohammedans, 1860–1873

Revolt Of Mohammedans In 1895–1896

Ii. The Chronicles Of The Lu Clan

General Introduction

Nature Of The Chronicles

Authors Of The Chronicles And The Time Of Their Composition

Note About The Authors Of The Chronicles

To Huan, Founding Ancestor Of The Clan


Hu Ch'a


The Sons Of Hulut'ai

Yeh Pu Kan

Yeh Mei Kan, Papala, Peitahan, And Papa

T'o Huan

The Sons Of T'o Huan

Genealogical Register Of The Family Lu


Genealogical Register

Chronological Biographies


Chronological Biographies

Primordial Clan Ancestor: T'o Huan

Second Generation: Lu Kung-pu-shih-tieh

The Third Generation: Lu Hsien

The Fourth Generation: Lu Chien

Fifth Generation: Lu Lin

Sixth Generation: Lu Chin

Seventh Generation: Lu Tung

Eighth Generation: Lu Kuang-tsu

Ninth Generation: Lu Yung-ch'ang

Tenth Generation: Lu Hung

Eleventh Generation: Lu Ti-hsin

Twelfth Generation: Lu Hua-lin

Thirteenth Generation: Lu Feng Chu

Fourteenth Generation: Lu Fan

Fifteenth Generation: Lu Chi-hsun

Sixteenth Generation: Lu K'ung-chao (cho)

Seventeenth Generation: Lu Wan-ch'ing

Biographies (lieh Chuan)


Sire T'o Huan, The Original Ancestor

Kung-pu-shih-tieh, Of The Second Generation

Piao-ch'i Chiang-chun, Sire Hsien Of The Third Generation

Chien, Sire Ching Lu, Of The Fourth Generation

Lin, Sire The Governor, Of The Fifth Generation

Chin, Sire Pacifier Of The Mongols, Of The Sixth Generation

Tung, Sire Chao I, Of The Seventh Generation

Kuang Tsu, Sire Kuang Lu Of The Eighth Generation

Yung Ch'ang, Sire Chung Ti Of The Ninth Generation

Commandant Sire Hung Of The Tenth Generation

Ti Hsin, Kao-tsu Chao Yung, The Great-great-grandfather 9 Of The Eleventh Generation

Hua Lin, Sire Wu Kung, The Great-grand-father (tseng-tsu), Of The Twelfth Generation

Feng Chu, Sire Wu I, The Grandfather Of The Thirteenth Generation

Fan, Sire Wu-kung, The Father Of The Fourteenth Generation

Chi Hsun Of The Fifteenth Generation

K'ung-chao Of The Sixteenth Generation

Wan Ch'ing, The Cheng-wei Chiang-chun Of The Seventeenth Generation

Foundation Of A Second Clan Within The Lu Clan

The Pa-chih-han Clan

The T'o Huan Clan On The Brink Of Disaster

First Group Of Seceders From The T'o Huan Clan In 1645

Social Status Of Chiefs Of Groups Of Seceders From The Clan

Seceders From The Lu Clan In 1645

Second Group Of Seceders

Group Of Lu Chih-ting, Third Group Of Seceders

Group Of Lu Kuo Yin, The Fourth Group

Group Of Lu San-ch'i, The Fifth Group

The Disintegrated Lu Clan

The Clan Members And The Seceders


The Glory Of The T'u-ssu Clans Of Huangchung

Died On The Field Of Battle

Honorific Arches And Inscriptions

Imperial Distinction

Steles Erected By Thankful People For Meritorious T'u-ssu

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The Monguors of the Kansu-Tibetan frontier: Part III. Records of the Monguor clans : history of the Monguors in Huangchung and the chronicles of the Lu family

Published By: Original publisher Philadelphia, Pa.: American Philosophical Society. 1961. 117 p. maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication [by] Louis M. J. Schram

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2005. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Monguor (AE09)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF History (175); External relations (648);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This is a historical study of the Monguor clans in Huangchung during the Ming and Ch'ing dynasties (1368-1911), based on the Annals of Hsinging and the Annals of Kansu. Father Schram, 'in order to make the history understandable,' begins his study from Huangchung during the Tang period (620-906). The latter half of this monograph is the history of a Monguor t'u-ssu clan, the most prominent among the clans. This study covers in detail some means used by the Chinese emperors to favorably impress the Monguors and to make them loyal defenders of the empire; the pecular mentality of the Monguor t'u-ssu family; and the process of Sinicization of the Monguors. The author introduces the different ethnic and tribal elements which constitute the Huangchung population without presenting a working definition of Monguors in Huangchung. This may cause difficulty and confusion for the reader. Although most of the data in this monograph pertain to the history of the Monguor and not to contemporary conditions, the material has been indexed in terms of contemporary Monguor society.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 5

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. ae09-005

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Huangchung is the historical name for the Xining region of present-day eastern Qinghai Province, lying north and west of the Yellow River, near the border of Gansu Province. Before 1928, Qinghai was part of Gansu Province and known as Kokonor. Historical Gansu Province was divided into Kokonor (West Kansu), Huangchung (Xining region) and East Kansu (Present-day Gansu Province.) Includes bibliographical references

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1911-1922

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Missionary-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Hesung C. Koh ; 1961

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 620-906; 1368-1911

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Xining Prefecture, Qinghai Province, China

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Mongour (Chinese people)


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