Schram, Louis, 1883-. Marriage among the T'u-jen of Kansu (China)

Table of Contents

Publication Information


Preliminary Notes

1. General Necessity For Marriage

2. Necessity For Male Descendants

Division Of The Study

Chapter I Marriage By Purchase

A. Marriage With A Young Girl As The Official Wife

1. Parties To The Marriage

2. Social Position Of The Future Partners With Respect To Marriage

3. When The Marriage Proposal Is Made

4. How Is A Marriage Proposal Made?

5. Discussion Of The Bride Price And Deciding On The Wedding Gifts

6. Delivery Of The Presents Demanded For The Bride

A) When Do They Proceed To The Delivery Of The Presents?

B) How Does One Proceed To The Delivery Of The Presents?

7. Age Required For Marriage

8. Setting Of The Wedding Date; Negotiations Concerning The Last Arrangements

9. Delivery Of The Presents And Invitation To The Wedding

10. Marriage Without Ceremonies

11. Farewell Dinner At The Bride's Home

12. Getting The Bride

13. Arrival Of The Bride In Her New Family

14. Gifts Of The Bride's Family To That Of The Bridegroom

15. The Wedding

16. Opening Of The Daughter-in-law's Mouth

17. The Dinner

18. Gifts Of The Son-in-law's Family To The Daughter-in-law's Family

19. Departure Of The Guests

20. Visits After The Wedding

21. Relations Of The Married Couple With The Daughter-in-law's Family

A) Relations Of The Married Daughter With Her Own Family After The Wedding.

B) Relations Of The Son-in-law With The Family Of His Parents-in-law.

B. Marriages Of Widows As Official Wives

1. Rights Of Widows, Theory And Practice

2. Procedure For The Purchase Of A Widow

3. Departure Of The Widow

4. Settling Of Accounts

5. Marriage Of Widows

6. Two Typical Abductions Of Widows

7. Vestiges Of Marriage By Abduction Among The T'ou-jen

C. Polygamy

1. Polygamy Exists. It Is Not General

2. The Four Categories Of Polygamists

A) The First Category Of Polygamists Includes Sterile Couples.

B) The Second Category Of Polygamists: Widows, Or The Levirate.

C) The Third Category Of Polygamists Is Met In Well-to-do Families Who Lack Workers.

D) Fourth Category Of Polygamists: That Of Those Who Want To Have Two Wives To Enjoy Them.

3. Procedure For The Purchase Of A Concubine

4. Position Of The Concubine With Respect To The Official Wife

Chapter Ii Marriages By The Furnishing Of One's Services Or Person

A. Marriage Of A Widow

B. Marriage Of A Girl, Or The Question Of Husband-sons-in-law

1. Exchange Of A Girl For The Furnishing Of Service Until The Death Of The Parents

2. Exchange Of A Girl For Furnishing Of Services For A Fixed Number Of Years

3. Purchase Of A Girl And Search For A Son-in-law Who Will Serve Their Parents-in-law Until Death

4. Furnishing Of One's Person By Adoption In Order To Obtain A Wife

Chapter Iii Abnormal Marriages

A. Marriages To A Prayer Pole, Etc.

B. Marriages To A Belt

Chapter Iv Divorce, Repudiation, Exchange Of Wives

A. Divorce

1. Right Of Divorce, Theory And Practice

2. Causes Of Divorce

B. Repudiation

C. Exchange Of Married Women

Chapter V Runaway Wives

Chapter Vi The Matriarchate

A. Present-day Patriarchal State System Of The Large Family

B. Ancient Matriarchate

1. Double Burial

2. Relations Of The Maternal Uncle With The Family Of His Sister And Her Children

A) Right Of Life And Death Over His Sister's Children.

B) Permission To Bury The Dead Is Given By The Maternal Uncle.

C) Precedence Of The Maternal Uncle At The Wedding.

3. Importance Of The Mother, The Daughter-in-law, The Child, The Maternal Clan

A) Abnormal Interference In The Marriage Of Her Children.

B) Succession On The Maternal Side.

C) Admission Into The Family Of Children Born Of Outsider Fathers.

D) Frequent Family Visits Of The Daughter-in-law And Right To Keep Her Property At Her Mother's Home.

E) Festivities At The Birth Of Daughters.

F) Wedding Dinner At The Bride's Home.

4. Husband-sons-in-law

Supplementary Notes

Notes On The Tungus

Notes On The Lo-lo P'o


The Principal Rite Of Marriage

Untitled Section: ...

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Marriage among the T'u-jen of Kansu (China)

Published By: Original publisher Shanghai, China: Catholic Mission Press. 1932. HRAF ms: v, 207 p. [Original: x, 195 p., plates]

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication [by] Louis Schram ; translation by Jean H. Winchell

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2005. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Monguor (AE09)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Marriage (580);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This is a detailed ethnohistorical study of marriage among the T'ou-jen of Kansu, based on the author's ten years residence among the people. Data are included on the mode of marriage, the process of arranging marriage, the patterns of nuptial rites, interpersonal relationships between affinal relatives, the women's relationship with her family of orientation, the social mechanism to legitimize children and their mothers, and the methods of terminating marriage. The author devotes a chapter to a now outmoded theoretical concern, namely whether or not the 'matriarchate' existed among the T'u-jen in a former period. Throughout the study, Father Schram compares T'u-jen culture with that of Historical Mongolia, the Manchu, the Lolo and the Miao. Suppelmentary notes on the Tungus and Lolo are added on pp. 177-191. This comprehensive study provides the researcher with valuable resources for further research with different theoretical orientations.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 2

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. ae09-002

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Component part(s), monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English translation from French

Note: Translation of: [Le Mariage chez les T'ou-jen du Kan-sou (Chine)] Translated from the French for the Human Relations Area Files by Jean H. Winchell. List of Works Consulted, Alphabetical Index, and Errata are not included Schram did his fieldwork among the Monguor of 'P'ing-fan' subprefecture in Sining (Xining) Prefecture, of western Kansu (now Qinghai) Province. It is not clear what is the contemporary name for 'P'ing-fan.' The name may have changed to 'Ping'an.' Unsure, I have omitted the town name in the place coverage. The study is based largely on ethnographic fieldwork among the Monguor with footnotes referring to comparative material and historical sources on the Mongols, Manchus, Lo-lo P'o of Yunnan, and the Tungus (Evenki) of Siberia and Manchuria. (Notes added by Ian Skoggard; 2004)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1915-1920

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Missionary-4,5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Hesung C. Koh ; 1962

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1915-1920

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Xining Prefecture, Qinghai Province, China

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Mongour (Chinese people)


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