Watanabe, Hitoshi, 1919-. The Ainu: a study of ecology and the system of social solidarity between man and nature in relation to group structure

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Publication Information

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The Ainu: a study of ecology and the system of social solidarity between man and nature in relation to group structure

Published By: Original publisher Tokyo: University of Tokyo. 1964. 164 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication [by] Hitoshi Watanabe

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2009. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Ainu (AB06)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Functional and adaptational interpretations (182); Production and supply (433); Community structure (621); Community heads (622); Ritual (788); Tribe and nation (619); Fishing (226); Gender status (562); Boats (501); Ethnobotany (824); Annual cycle (221); Hunting and trapping (224); Division of labor by gender (462); Real property (423); Land use (311);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document Once one of the original inhabitants of much of the Japanese archipelago, the remaining Ainu, following Japanese encroachments and incursions, now occupy sections of Hokkaido, Sakhalin, and other islands. Being subject to often extreme acculturative and assimmilative pressures of one sort or another, Ainu society has been transforming or modifying itself along Japanese lines to the point where the traditional subsistance economy, sociopolitical kinship and territorial system, and religious complex have been wholly lost or left only partially intact. In rediscovering some of these aboriginal institutions and organizations this document offers a fairly comprehensive and exhaustive description and analysis of what the interrelationships between ecological and economic processes were probably like among several of the aboriginal Ainu tribes of Hokkaido. The empirical findings in this monograph derive from the author's field research among the Ainu, involving interviews of informants knowledgeable of Ainu society as it was immediately prior to the 1880's before the Japanese undertook various agricultural development and land reallotment schemes which had the effect of undermining to a large extent the traditional Ainu economic system, and of fragmenting and dispersing Ainu village communities. He deals specifically with the Ainu situation under the 'basho' or feudal land district system during the last phases of the Tokugawa Shogunate just before the administration of the area by the Japanese government. The author's objective is to reconstruct from informant interview evidence and other historical documents the nature of aboriginal society and economy before the large-scale economic changes which were undertaken by the Japanese government. The author, a Jaanese anthropologist, organizes his data and evidence within an ecological framework by relating his findings to the theoretical concepts of cultural ecology. In evaluating and examining his material, he uses many of the ecological insights of Daryll Forde, whose student the author had been at the University of London. A section of extensive notes amplifying many of his general arguments and observations follows the main text. A useful bibliography, as well as explicit ecological maps and charts, is also included.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 11

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. ab06-011

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes 2 folding maps, including 1 end map Includes bibliographical references (p. 160-164)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1951-1959

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-4,5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Gilbert Winer ; Helen Bornstein ;1968-1975

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1900-1959

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Hokkaido

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Ainu


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