Ainsworth, Mary D. (Salter). Infancy in Uganda: infant care and the growth of love

Table of Contents

Publication Information

I Purposes And Procedures

1 Purposes And Plans

2 The Ganda And How They Live

3 Preliminaries

4 The Sample


Religious Affiliation

Marital Status Of Parents


Siblings And Other Children In The Household

Other Adults In The Household

Unweaned Versus Weaned Babies

Degree Of Acculturation

How Representative Is This Sample?

Informants Of Traditional Ganda Methods Of Infant Care

5 Procedure

Interview Schedule

The Visits

Reliability Of Information

Schedule Of Visits

The Mother’s Excellence As An Informant

Special Difficulties

Ii Methods Of Infant Care And The Infants’ Responses To Them

6 Feeding

Early Lactation And Sucking

Later Lactation

Enjoyment Of Breast Feeding

Method Of Breast Feeding

Response Of The Baby To Breast Feeding

Supplementary Feeding

Thumb Sucking

7 Cleanliness


Other Cleanliness Practices

Elimination Practices And Training

Establishment Of Control Of Elimination

8 Sleeping

9 Mothering Practices

Quantity And Mode Of Physical Contact Between Mother And Baby

Carrying And Handling


Cuddling, Play, And Affectionate Display

Sharing Of Mothering

Amount Of Care Given By Mother

Total Amount Of Care

10 Distress, Anger, And Discipline

Response Of The Mother To The Baby’s Distress

Angry Behavior

Response Of The Mother To The Baby’s Anger


11 Health And Safety


Iii Case Summaries Of The Infants And Their Families


12 Three Children From Unacculturated Muslim Families: Aida, Juko, And Muhamidi




13 Eight Babies From Relatively Acculturated Protestant Families: Waswa, Nakato, Nora, Kulistina, Senkumba, Nabatanzi, Nakiku, And Kasozi

Waswa And Nakato: The Older Twins

Nora And Kulistina





14 Four More Muslim Babies: Alima, Namitala, Sulaimani, And Nakalema

Alima And Namitala





15 Four Babies From Acculturated Families William, Maryamu, And The Younger Twins, Waswa And Nakato


Gesell Testing


The Younger Twins: Waswa And Nakato

16 Five More Babies From Christian Families: Lusiya, Senvuma, Samwendi, Mutebe, And Kyimba






17 Three Babies From Relatively Affluent Families: Paulo, Petero, And Magalita




Untitled Section: ...

18 An Exceptional Child: Sembajwe

Iv Infant Development

19 Sensorimotor Development

Locomotor Development


Crawling And Creeping



Language Development

Géber’s Findings

20 Patterns Of Attachment Behavior

Differential Crying

Differential Smiling

Differential Vocalization

Crying When The Mother Leaves


Visual-motor Orientation

Greeting Responses


Burying The Face

Approach Through Locomotion

Kissing And Hugging

Use Of The Mother As A Secure Base For Exploration

Flight To The Haven Of Safety


21 Responses To Other Familiar Figures And To Strangers

Attachment To Familiar Figures Other Than The Mother

Response To Strangers

22 The Development Of Attachments

A Summary Of The Development Of Attachments

First Quarter: Birth To Thirteen Weeks

Second Quarter: Fourteen To Twenty-six Weeks

Third Quarter: Twenty-seven To Thirty-nine Weeks

Fourth Quarter And Beyond: Forty To Sixty Weeks

Phases Of Development Of Attachment

Phase I: The Undiscriminating Phase

Phase Ii: The Phase Of Differential Responsiveness

Phase Iii: The Phase Of Differential Responsiveness At A Distance 1

Phase Iv: The Phase Of Active Initiative

Phase V: The Phase Of Stranger Anxiety

23 Variables Influencing The Development Of Attachment

Classification Of Infants According To Strength And Security Of Attachment

The “non-attached” Group

The Secure-attached Group

The Insecure-attached Group

Maternal-care Variables Related To The Strength And Security Of Attachment

Warmth Of Mother

Multiple Caretakers

Amount Of Care Given By The Mother

Total Amount Of Care

Mother’s Excellence As An Informant

Scheduled Versus Self-demand Feeding

Mother’s Milk Supply

Mother’s Attitude Toward Breast Feeding


24 Weaning

25 Mother-child Separation




26 Impressions And Conjectures

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Infancy in Uganda: infant care and the growth of love

Published By: Original publisher Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. 1967. xvii, 471 p. ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication by Mary D. Salter Ainsworth

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 1998. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Ganda (FK07)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Ontogenetic data (145); Infant feeding (853); Infant care (854); Child care (855); Development and maturation (856); Weaning and food training (862); Independence training (866);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This is an in-depth report on infant care and development in rural Uganda, based on seven-months participant obervation of 28 infants (starting ages ranging from two days to eighty weeks), living in 23 households from 7 different villages located 15 miles outside of Kampala. With help of an interpreter, the author visited on a rotating basis the homes of the infants, as well as, a local clinic where many of the first contacts with families were made. Each visit consisted of a brief stay in which the author observed the behavior of the mother, infant and other caretakers in the household. Also, the clinic carried out regular developmental tests. The author was interested in the influence of mother-infant attachment on infant development. One finding was that the open and stimulating household environment together with a mother responsive to infant needs had a favorable impact on infant sensorimotor development, however sickness and weaning had a negative impact.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 18

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. fk07-018

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 459-462) and index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1954-1955

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Psychologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Ian Skoggard ; 1997

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1954-1955

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Uganda

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Ganda (African people)


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