Coon, Carleton S. (Carleton Stevens), 1904-1981. Tribes of the Rif

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Part One Culture

Chapter I Introduction

Tribal Boundaries

Physical Geography



Other Trees




















Other Animals

Chapter Ii Traditions Of Origin: Ghomara, Senhaja, And Rif




Chapter Iii Recorded History Of The Rif

Pre-islamic History

First Arab Invasions

The Kingdom Of Nekor

Other Early Centers

Arrival Of The Bedawin

The Zenatan Invasion

Chapter Iv Material Culture



Animal Husbandry

Land Transport


Agriculture And The Gathering Of Wild Plants

Food Preparation And Eating

Chapter V Material Culture (continued)

Metal Work

Manufacture Of Gunpowder

Preparation And Working Of Leather

Woodwork And Carpentry

Manufacture Of Tar

House Types

Household Furniture


Wood, Skin, And Iron Containers





Use Of Henna

Use Of Kohl

Chapter Vi Social Organization

Kinship Groups And Political Divisions

Social Classes

Chapter Vii Government And Warfare

Representative Councils

Duties Of The Village Council

Duties Of The Council Of The Great

Duties Of The Tribal Council

Inter-tribal Warfare

Chapter Viii Markets

Chapter Ix Public Buildings And Public Instruction

Mosques And Saints' Tombs


Chapter X Judicial And Clerical Officers; Laws Governing Inheritance

Chapter Xi Crises In The Life Of The Individual


Names And Naming

The First Haircut




Death And Burial

Chapter Xii Religion

Religious Brotherhoods



Supernatural Beings

Chapter Xiii Magic



Theira Of The Jnun

Old Women's Magic



The Evil Eye

Interpretation Of Dreams

Chapter Xiv Analysis Of The Distribution Of Cultural Factors

Chapter Xxv Culture, Tradition, And Race. Conclusions Regarding Berber Origins

Culture And Race

Tradition And Race

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Tribes of the Rif

Published By: Original publisher Cambridge, Mass.: Peabody Museum of Harvard University. 1931. xviii, 417 p., 67 plates [incomplete]

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Carleton Stevens Coon

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2010. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Berbers of Morocco (MX03)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Traditional history (173); History (175); Tillage (241); Pastoral activities (233); Fishing (226); Hunting and trapping (224); Food preparation (252); Dwellings (342); Normal garb (291); Community councils (623); Judicial authority (692); Property offenses (685); Instigation of war (721); Aftermath of combat (727); Congregations (794); Nuptials (585); Burial practices and funerals (764); Organized ceremonial (796);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This source covers the Berber tribes of the Rif, an area along the northern coast of Spanish Morocco. It deals in particular with three adjoining sub-areas: Rif, Ghomara, and Northern Senhaja. The book covers first the geography, traditional history, and recorded history of the area. There follows a thorough treatment of material culture, social organization, government and warfare, markets, public buildings and instruction, officers, life crises, religion, magic, and an analysis of the distribution of cultural traits. The many distribution maps are particularly useful. The author undertook the fieldwork on which this book is based when he was a graduate student in anthropology at Harvard University. Mr. David M. Hart, a graduate student in anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania, and recently returned from two years fieldwork in the Rif, supplied the following information which supplements Coon's observations: 'A dual organization does exist among the Rif......each tribe in the Rif is split in half politically, and each of these halves not only fights the other one, but brings in, in most cases, other whole tribes or segments of tribes to help it out. called liff; the only liff that Coon mentions is the smaller type within each tribal segment. These small lifuf (pl. of liff) constantly change; the big ones do not. Aith Wariyaghar, for example, is divided into five primary segments; two of these are in one liff, two in the other, and the fifth is split in half, part of it on one side and part on the other. In Aith 'Ammarth there are four segments, and a two-way split. In Igzannayen, with five segments, it is three and two. In Asht Tuzin (as I recall) each of the five segments is split in half' (p. 91). 'While the village council may be composed of boys in Igzinnayen, this is not the case in Aith Wariyaghar or any of the other tribes. In these groups, adult men form the village council' ( p. 96). 'In his chapter on markets, Coon discusses women's markets, but fails to point out their distribution. They are located only in the lowlands and median slopes of Aith Wariyaghar; there are none elsewhere and none in the high mountains of that tribe. Although most of the other tribes have traditions of having had women's markets in the past, none have them now' (p. 110).

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. mx03-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Component part(s), monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical records (p. [413]-417) The material has been marked only for the MX3 Rif file. Pages 175-405, dealing with the comparative physical anthropology of the Rif, have been omited; pages 406-418, containing the author's conclusions as to Berber origins, and a general bibliography, have been included in the file.

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1926-1927

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. James R. Leary ; 1958

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1900-1931

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Rif, Morocco

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Berbers//Anthropometry--Morocco//Ethnology--Morocco//Rif Mountains (Morocco)//Morocco--Social life and customs


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