Hockings, Paul. Ancient Hindu refugees: Badaga social history 1550-1975

Table of Contents

Publication Information


The Terrain

The Nilgiri Population


1 The Migration From Mysore

Dating The Migration

Published Estimates

Linguistic Evidence

Other Historical Evidence








Wainad Gaudas

Badagas Of Ha:sanu:ru


Be:das, Kumba:ras And Hill Forts

Male Ko:□e

Hatra Ko:□e


2 Place-names And Cultural Ecology

A New System Of Therapy

Village Names

1. Names From A Topographic Feature Or The Sky

2. References To Land Or Quality Of The Soil

3. Nature Of Vegetation (and Jungle Produce)

4. Plant Species

5. References To Local Animals

6. References To Buffalo Herding

7. Names Showing Relation To Other Villages

8. References To A Cultural Feature

9. Fortifications

10. References To Badaga Men And Women Or Clans

11. References To Toda Men Or Former Toda Sites

12. Reference To A Kota Man

13. References To Former Kurumba Hamlets

14. Reference To An Irula Or Kasuva Site

Selection Of An Ecological Zone


3 Social Groupings

The Joint Patrilocal Family






Jati, Marriage Preference And Role Ambiguity











Ha:sanu:ru Badagas


4 Traditional Interchange (1)

The Interdependence Of The Plateau Communities

Badagas And Kotas

Kota Products And Services

Badaga Products

Irregular Services

Badaga Rituals

Kota Ceremonies


5 Traditional Interchange (2)

Badagas And Todas

Badaga Products

Toda Services And Products

Irregular Transactions

Ritual Interaction

Badagas And Kurumbas

The Control Of Sorcery

Exchange Of Goods And Services

Badagas And Irulas

Badagas And Kasuvas

Badagas And Uralis

The Wainad Gaudas And Their Neighbours

Traditional Interchange: A Summary


6 Early Patterns Of Trade

Original State Of The Economy

Marketing Before 1825

Marketing After 1825

Itinerant Traders On The Plateau


7 Growth Of The Cash Economy

Impact Of British Ideas On The Badaga Economy (1799–1850)

Expansion Of The Market Economy (1850–1900)

Agricultural Change Over The Past Century

Modern Systems Of Marketing

Modern Employment


8 Administration And Law

Customary Law

Headmen And Administrative Boundaries


Crime And Punishment

Local Administration

The Present Ambilegal Situation

Political Choice

Modern Laws


9 A Period Of Stress

Factors Leading To Stress

Land Legislation

Missionary Activity

Natural Calamities

Reactions Of The Badagas To Evangelization

Attempts To Syncretize Christianity And Hinduism

Hindu Reformers

The Destruction Of The Temples

Sanctions Against Conversion

Personal Disorientation

Massacring Of Kurumbas


The Cult Of Irabattaraya


Accommodation Of The Christian Community

Major Factions Became Permanent

Health Improvements And Economic Growth


10 Religious And Social Change In The Twentieth Century

Bajan And Krishna Worship

Tamilian And Kanarese Celebrations

Growth Of Lingayat Ties With Mysore

Changing Patterns Of Marriage And Residence

The New Factions

The Christian Community

New Patterns Of Communication


The Impact Of Towns

Film-going Habits



Networks Of Communication

Intra-village Networks

Inter-village Networks

Inter-tribal Networks

Village-and-town Networks

The Position Of Badagas In Nilgiri Society

Changing Social Structure


11 Summary And Conclusion

Some Conclusions On Modernization


Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Ancient Hindu refugees: Badaga social history 1550-1975

Published By: Original publisher The Hague ; New York: Mouton. 1980. 14, 285 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Paul Hockings

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2005. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Badaga (AW50)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF History (175); Community heads (622); Place names (103); Settlement patterns (361); Clans (614); Phratries (615); Acculturation and culture contact (177); Sociocultural trends (178); External relations (648); Medium of exchange (436); External trade (439); Missions (797); Ingroup antagonisms (578); General character of religion (771); Spirits and gods (776);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This source on Badaga social history between 1550 and 1975 is one of the primary sources in the Badaga file. The topics discussed by the author include clan and phratry legends of the Badaga migration from Mysore to the Nilgiri Plateau, place names and cultural ecology, social organization, the interdependence of Badaga communities with non-Badaga communities on the Nilgiri Plateau, economic history, political organization and law, the impact of culture contact, acculturation, and missionization, and religious and social change in the 20th century.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 2

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. aw50-002

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 253-261) and indexes

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1962-1977

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-4,5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Gerald Reid ; 1989

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1550-1975

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Nilgiri Hills, Tamil Nadu State, India

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Badaga (Indic people)


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