Collection Description

Culture Name

Navajo

Culture Description

The Navajo are the second largest Native North American group. They currently live mostly in northwestern New Mexico, northeastern Arizona, and southeastern Utah. The Navajo language belongs to the Apachean branch of the Athapaskan family. Ancestors of the Navajo are thought to have migrated to the Southwest within the last one thousand years. Modern Navajo culture exhibits a unique blend of Athapaskan, Puebloan, Mexican, and Anglo-American influences. Every Navajo belongs to one of sixty-four matrilineal clans. Navajo mythology is epitomized in the curing ceremony called the Blessing Way.

Note

Select the Culture Summary link above for a longer description of the culture.

Region

North America --Southwest and Basin

Countries

United States

OWC Code

NT13

Number of Documents

251

Note: Select the Collection Documents tab above to browse documents.

Number of Pages

27282

Collection Overview

As one of the largest Native American tribes, with a unique language, the Navajo are by far the most studied Native American culture in anthropology. In the eHRAF Collection of Ethnography, there are a total of 252 documents, 27,210 pages of text, published between 1873 and 2001. Because of the size of the file, there is only space to list references under general categories. Documents are referenced by author, date of publication, and eHRAF document number.

ARCHAEOLOGY:
(Brugge 1983, 197)
(Farmer 1942, 125)
(Hurt 1942, 127)
(Hall 1944, 153)
ARCHITECTURE & THE ARTS:
(Ballinger 1966, 233)
(Corbett 1940, 71)
(Frisbie 1980, 297)
(Frisbie 1980, 300)
(Haile 1942, 269)
(Hartman 1987, 270)
(Hurt 1942, 127)
(Jett 1981, 271)
(Kent 1982, 258)
(Kent 1985, 274)
(Kluckhohn 1938, 74)
(Kluckhohn 1940, 47)
(Matthews 1885, 59)
(McAllester 1954, 215)
(McAllester & Mitchell 1983, 206)
(Newcomb 1956, 219)
(Page 1937, 37)
(Parezo 1982, 253)
(Rodee 1982, 252)
(Roessel 1983, 205)
(Shufeldt 1889, 109)
(Stephen 1894, 111)
(Tschopik 1941, 40)
(Walton 1930, 45)
(Witherspoon 1977, 223)
(Wyman 1938, 195)
CULTURE CHANGE:
(Adair 1949, 50)
(Adams & Ruffing 1977, 263)
(Ch'iao 1971, 184)
(Hill 1940, 12)
(Hodge 1969, 265)
(Kneale 1950, 146)
(Rapoport 1954, 216)
(Sasaki 1960, 218)
(Williams 1970, 224)
ECONOMY:
(Aberle 1983, 209)
(Adair 1944, 90)
(Adams 1963, 181)
(Bartlett 1950, 148)
(Bryan 1929, 79)
(Downs 1964, 242)
(Downs 1972 185)
(Fewkes 1923, 150)
(Gilbreath 1977, 296)
(Goldfrank 1945, 130)
(Hill 1937, 17)
(Hill 1938, 8)
(Hill 1940, 15)
(Hill 1948, 14)
(Kelley 1986, 272)
(Kelley 1989, 273)
(Kimball 1942, 88)
(Kluckhohn et al. 1971, 192)
(Kneale 1950, 146)
(Landgraf 1950, 145)
(Mathews 1883, 94)
(Reno 1981, 280)
(Roessel, R. 1983, 205)
(Rodee 1982, 252)
(Russell 1983, 243)
(Stephen 1890, 111)
(Stephen 1890, 115)
(Stewart 1938, 41)
(Stewart 1938, 92)
(Tschopik 1938, 91)
(United States 1973, 264)
(Vogt 1960, 229)
EDUCATION:
(Emerson 1983, 210)
(Kneale 1950, 146)
ETHNOSCIENCE:
(Brugge 1982, 255)
(Elmore 1944, 267)
(Haile 1947, 25)
(Kent 1982, 258)
(Reichard 1948, 149)
(Tozzer 1908, 97)
(Vestal 1952, 213)
(Wyman & Harris 1941, 226)
FAMILY, MARRIAGE & KINSHIP:
(Aberle 1974, 186)
(Aberle 1981, 247)
(Carr 1939, 61)
(Chisholm 1983, 240)
(Dennis 1940, 108)
(Fewkes 1923, 150)
(Freed, J. & Freed, R. 1970, 232)
(Hoebel 1949, 114)
(Kluckhohn 1947, 53)
(Kluckhohn 1949, 66)
(Landar 1962, 231)
(Levy 1964, 234)
(Newcomb 1939, 77)
(Reichard 1928, 4)
(Shepardson & Hammond 1970, 241)
(Stephen 1890, 111)
(Witherspoon 1975, 190)
(Zelditch 1959, 236)
GAMES & HUMOR:
(Haile 1933, 155)
(Hill 1943, 11)
(Reagan 1932, 154)
GENERAL ETHNOLOGY:
(Bailey 1950, 54)
(Beadle 1873, 77)
(Haile 1932, 101)
(Hill 1938, 8)
(Kluckhohn 1944, 60)
(Kluckhohn 1966, 225)
(Kluckhorn & Leighton, D. 1946, 1)
(Landgraf 1950, 145)
(Leighton, D. & Kluckhohn 1947, 2)
(Leighton, A. 1944, 3)
(Reichard 1928, 4)
(Reichard 1950, 63)
(Wilson 1890, 110)
GOVERNMENT & POLITICS:
(Goldfrank 1945, 130)
(Hill 1940, 9)
(Iverson 1983, 208)
(Pearson 1969, 222)
(Pillsbury 1951, 78)
(Shepardson 1963, 183)
(Shepardson 1983, 207)
(Tome 1983, 212)
(Van Valkenburgh 1945, 133)
(Williams 1970, 224)
HEALTH & MEDICINE:
(Adair & Deuschle 1970, 188)
(Bailey 1940, 70)
(Bergman 1983, 211)
(Butte 1981, 248)
(Carpenter 1939, 39)
(Davies 2001, 295)
(Elmore 1938, 75)
(Heath 1964, 227)
(Hill 1935, 19)
(Hill 1938, 13)
(Hill 1940, 15)
(Hill 1946, 16)
(Hrdlička 1908, 67)
(Kunitz et al. 1969, 238)
(Kunitz et al. 1971, 239)
(Leighton, A. 1949, 302)
(Lockett 1939, 56)
(Moorman 1949, 137)
(Morgan 1931, 62)
(Page 1937, 104)
(Stephen 1890, 115)
(Trennert 1998, 283)
(Wyman 1936, 36)
(Wyman 1938, 195)
HISTORY, LEGENDS & MYTHS:
(Bailey & Bailey 1986, 294)
(Brewer 1937, 171)
(Brugge 1978, 304)
(Brugge 1983, 197)
(Concha 1949, 128)
(Gill 1983, 198)
(Haile 1938, 26)
(Haile 1943, 27)
(Hill 1943, 20)
(Hill 1943, 22)
(Hill 1945, 21)
(Hoopes 1946, 132)
(Huscher 1942, 126)
(Kimball 1946, 129)
(O'Bryan 1956, 182)
(Reeve 1946, 131)
(Roessel 1983, 199)
(Stephen 1936, 31)
(Underhill 1948, 123)
(Van Valkenburgh 1945, 133)
(Wyman 1936, 96)
LANGUAGE:
(Haile 1926, 28)
(Haile 1941, 23)
(Landar 1962, 231)
(Witherspoon 1977, 223)
(Witherspoon 1983, 203)
LAW & ETHICS:
(Ladd 1957, 196)
(Mathews 1899, 49)
(Van Valkenburgh 1937, 42)
(Van Valkenburgh 1937, 43)
(Van Valkenburgh 1938, 44)
LIFE HISTORY:
(Brewer 1937, 171)
(Mitchell, R. 2001, 275)
(Mitchell, F. 1978, 298)
(Newcomb 1964, 277)
(Oshley 2000, 279)
MORTUARY PRACTICES:
(Brugge 1978, 304)
(Frisbie 1978, 306)
(Griffen 1978, 307)
(Levy 1978, 309)
(Senter 1937, 38)
(Shepardson 1978, 308)
(Stephen 1890, 115)
(Ward 1978, 305)
PSYCHOLOGY:
(Leighton, D. & Kluckhohn 1947, 2)
(Leighton, A. 1942, 34)
(Kluckhohn 1945, 52)
(Kluckhohn 1945, 64)
(Kluckhohn 1946, 51)
(Steggerda 1936, 89)
(Dennis 1940, 108)
(Kluckhohn 1951, 118)
(Leighton, A. 1941, 138)
Henry 1947, 139)
(Kaplan & Johnson 1964, 228)
RELIGION:
(Aberle 1966, 191)
(Aberle 1983, 202)
(Blanchard 1977, 189)
(Fransted 1982, 262)
(Frisbie 1982, 256)
(Goodwin 1945, 69)
(Haile 1938, 26)
(Haile 1943, 157)
(Haile 1947, 25)
(Henderson 1982, 260)
(Hill 1935, 19)
(Hill 1944, 10)
(Hill 1946, 16)
(Jett 1982, 259)
(Kent 1982, 258)
(Kluckhohn 1938, 46)
(Kluckhohn 1940, 47)
(Kluckhohn 1944, 60)
(Kluckhohn 1951, 118)
(Lamphere 1969, 230)
(Leighton, A. 1941, 138)
(Matthews 1898, 48)
(Matthews 1898, 55)
(McAllester 1954, 215)
(Morgan 1931, 62)
(Morgan 1932, 100)
(Morgan 1970, 276)
(Newcomb 1938, 76)
(Newcomb 1939, 77)
(Newcomb 1940, 99)
(Opler 1943, 121)
(Rapoport 1954, 216)
(Reichard 1950, 63)
(Rodee 1982, 252)
(Shiya 1951, 117)
(Toulouse 1982, 254)
(Tozzer 1909, 103)
(Tschopik 1938, 91)
(Van Valkenburgh 1938, 172)
(Werner et al. 1983, 204)
(Witherspoon 1983, 203)
(Wood 1982, 261)
(Wyman 1936, 96)
(Wyman 1936, 98)
(Wyman 1938, 195)
(Wyman 1942, 65)
(Wyman 1943, 120)
(Wyman 1943, 122)
(Wyman 1945, 144)
(Wyman 1946, 80)
(Wyman 1951, 147)
(Wyman 1983, 201)
(Wyman & Haile 1970, 299)
SEX & GENDER:
(AIQ editors 1982, 293)
(Bailey 1950, 54)
(Downs 1972, 185)
(Dyk 1951, 136)
(Conte 1982, 289)
(Frisbie 1967, 303)
(Frisbie 1982, 284)
(Frisbie 1989, 268)
(Griffen 1982, 288)
(Hamamsy 1957, 237)
(Hill 1935, 93)
(Joe 1982, 292)
(Kluckhohn 1938, 74)
(Kluckhohn 1948, 95)
(Leighton, D. 1982, 285)
(Metcalf 1982, 287)
(Nez Denetdale 2001, 278)
(Parezo 1982, 290)
(Roessel 1981, 281)
(Schwarz 1997, 282)
(Shepardson 1982, 291)
(Wright 1982, 286)
SOCIAL ORGANIZATION & RELATIONSHIPS:
(Bauer 1983, 244)
(Ch'iao 1971, 184)
Collier 1968, 187)
(Downs 1972, 185)
(Kimball 1942, 88)
(Lamphere 1977, 193)
(Levy 1962, 235)
(Parezo 1982, 253)
(Roberts 1951, 217)
(Sasaki 1960, 218)
(Shepardson & Hammond 1970, 241)
(Witherspoon 1983, 200)
VETERANS & WAR:
(Adair 1949, 50)
(Hill 1936, 18)
(Johnston 1942, 58)
(Vogt 1951, 214)

For more detailed information on the content of the individual works in this file, see the abstracts in the citations preceding each document.

This cultural summary is based on the article "Navajo" by William Y. Adams, in Timothy O'Leary and David Levinson (Eds.) 1991. Encyclopedia Of World Cultures, Vol. 1, North America. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co. We thank Charlotte Frisbie for helping in the selection of documents. Ian Skoggard updated population figures based on the 1990 and 2000 U.S. census.

Advisory committee -- advisers to the tribal council -- category 647

Blessing Way ceremony -- categories 755, 796, 751

camp -- 2-10 separate households living in a geographically distinct residence area -- categories 596, 621

Bureau of Indian Affairs--657

chapters -- moderately large political units -- category 631

clan groups -- category 614 (sometimes with 615)

code talkers (during World War II) -- category 708

Community Effort for Economic Development (CEED) -- an organization designed to help promote small businesses at the local chapter level -- category 179

constitutional assembly -- category 646

cooperating groups -- see "outfit"

co-residential kin groups -- category 613

district grazing committees -- categories 647, 233, 634 (sometimes 654 applicable)

DINEBEIINA NAHILNA BE AGADITAH (D.N.A.) -- a legal aid service designed to provide free legal advice to the Navajo -- category 693

field matrons -- similar in function to visiting nurses (non-Navajo)-- categories 657, 748

grattage -- a special surgical procedure used by government doctors in the treatment of trachoma in which the granules inside the eyelids are scraped off with a special instrument -- categories 657, 744

hand tremblers -- categories 756, 791 (depending on context)

hand trembling divination -- category 787

HATLI -- chanter -- category 756

homestead group -- category 596

HWELDE -- a reference to the march of the Navajo to Fort Sumner following the Navajo wars -- category 727

Ideal Woman -- 885

Indian Health Service (His)-744

JISH - medicine pouch -- 778

KINAALDÁ -- a girl's first menses and accompanying ceremony -- category 881

land management districts -- 18 in all on the reservation -- categories 634/657

land use community -- see "outfit"

NAACHID -- a winter council -- category 623

NAT'ANI (NAAT'AANIIS) -- headman -- category 622 (sometimes with 624)

Native American Church--795

natural communities -- category 621

Navajo Nation's Historic Preservation Department (NNHPD) -- category 814

New Mexico Association of Indian Affairs (NMAIA) -- a private charitable organization involved in promoting Indian health care issues -- category 747

Office of Navajo Economic Opportunity (ONEO) -- an organization designed to help the Navajo in proposing economic programs and in administering federal money to operate the projects -- category 179

outfit (called cooperating groups by Malcolm Collier) -- social units more extended than residence groups which cooperate with one another in various economic activities -- categories 596, 613 (sometimes with 628 and 476)

POBRES -- peasants, commoners -- category 565

pollen - 243, 782, 824

residence groups -- one or more closely related households living in close proximity to one another -- category 596

RICO -- nobility; individuals of high status and wealth constituting a class-like structure in the society -- categories 565, 554, 556

singers -- curing and religious functionaries -- category 756 (sometimes combined with 796 and 755)

Squaw Dance -- categories 755, 535

star-gazers -- category 756

stock reduction -- category 233 (sometimes with 179)

tribal council (modern -- post 1923) -- category 643

YEI -- the Holy People -- category 776

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