Culwick, G. M.. A dietary survey among the Zande of the south-western Sudan

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Untitled Section: ...

I.—summary And Conclusions



Expenditure On Food


Factors Involved In The Improvement Of Feeding

Consumption Target (immediate)

Ii.—background To The Survey


Physical Environment

Social Environment


Character Of The People

Iii.— Scope Of The Work

Iv.— The Homestead And Its Crops

The Homestead


The Crops

V.—the Life Of The Homestead

Character Of The Sample Groups

Cultivation (zande)

Other Occupations (zande)

The Work Cycle (zande)

Cultivation And Work Cycle (balanda)

Vi.—the Foods And Their Treatment



Starchy Roots And Fruits

Pulses (19-24)

Oilseeds And Oils

Animal Products

Leafy Vegetables (40-67 C )

Other Vegetables

Fruits (79-125) And Stems (128-130)




B.—principal Methods Of Preparation And Cooking


Flour Products


Oilseed Pastes And Sauces


Leafy Vegetables


Domestic Affairs

Special Classes

Vii.—food Consumption — Qualitative Data

Ix.—beer (and Other Alcoholic Beverages)

Types Of Beer And Methods Of Preparation

Other Alcoholic Drinks

Production And Consumption

X.—food Consumption — Quantitative Data

Food Intake


Sources Of Nutrients

Xi.—the People Themselves

Heights And Weights



Clinical Evidence

Xii. Comparison Of Requirements, Intake And Production







Vitamin A

Aneurin (vitamin B 1 )


Nicotinic Acid

Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C)

Provision For Labour And Other Wage-earning Groups

Intake And Production

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information


Title: A dietary survey among the Zande of the south-western Sudan

Published By: Khartoum: Agricultural Publications Commattee, Ministry of Agriculture, Sudan Govt., 1950. 169 p.: ill, maps

By line: by G. M. Culwick and with a clinical note by P. H. Abbott

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 1999. Computer File

Culture: Azande (FO07)

Subjects: Cultural participation (184); Nutrition (146); Annual cycle (221); Tillage (241); Diet (262); Nonalcoholic beverages (272); Food preparation (252); Alcoholic beverages (273); Household (592);

Abstract: This report was wratten by an agricultural expert to contribute data and information to the Sudan government in directing its Azande economic development scheme. Culwick examines and evaluates dietary patterns, food production, economic organization of agriculture, and nutrition among the Azande. Information is drawn from the author’s field survey among a population sample of rural peasant farmers and wage-earners from the Zande district. The main subjects of analysis include: economic structure and organization of the household, seasonal distribution of various types of agriculture, the productive capacity of the agricultural economy, frequency of occurrence by season and locality of various crops (cereals, roots, legumes, vegetables, fruits, cucurbits, etc.), intensity of land use for each main crop category, and the amount of labor expenditure on a daily-monthly-seasonal basis. Also found are qualitative and quantitative data on patterns of food consumption and dietary intake according to crop, season, and locality, and a nutritional analysis of this food intake according to its food value and the dietary requirements of the sample population. Culwick discusses the variables of food production, nutritional requirements, and dietary intake to determine where nutritional deficiencies and lapses may lie and the extent to which existing agricultural and dietary patterns meet Azande nutritional requirements. The orientation of the survey is toward framing some proposals and suggestions for improving the standard of performance of agriculture and to raise the overall levels of nutrition. Finally, it should be noted that the population of the Zande district is ethnically mixed. “For the purpose of this report, those living south of Tambura, though admattedly mixed, are called collectively Zande: those living north and north-west, a number of smaller tribal units under Zande rulers, are called collectively Balanda” (p. 14).

Document Number: 61

Document ID: fo07-061

Document Type: monograph

Language: English


Includes bibliographical references (p. 77-78)

Pages 157-167 were included as a separate document; see this file, 62: Abbott ‘Map of Area’ on page 156 was not found in the original text

Data referring to the Balanda have been indexed for category 184 in addition to the pertinent topical categories.

Field Date: 1947-1948

Evaluation: Technical Personnel-5

Analyst: Gilbert Winer; Robert O. Lagacé; 1968

Coverage Date: not specified

Coverage Place: southwestern Sudan

LCSH: Zande (African people)


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