Gusinde, Martin, 1886-1969. The Yahgan: the life and thought of the water nomads of Cape Horn

Table of Contents

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Part 2 Economic Life

A. The Dwelling

1. The Lack Of Permanent Settlements

2. The Two Types Of Huts

Α The Cone-shaped Hut

Β The Dome-shaped Hut

3. The Hut As A Dwelling

4. The Community Camp

5. The Fire

B. Clothing

1. Man's Clothing

2. Woman's Clothing

3. Children's Clothing

4. Purpose Of Clothing

5. Preparation Of Furs And Skins

C. Cleanliness And Body Ornamentation

1. Body Care

2. Cleanliness In The Hut

3. Body Painting

4. Ornaments

D. Implements, Tools, Weapons

1. The Bark Canoe

Α. The Bark Pieces

Β. Its Construction

Γ. Its Accessories

Δ. Its Efficiency

Ε. Dugout Canoe And Skiff

2. Bow And Arrow

Α, The Bow

Β. The Arrow

Γ. The Quiver

3. The Small Harpoon

4. The Large Harpoon

5. Javelin And Spear

6. Dagger And Lance

7. The Sling

8. Snares And Fishing Implements

Α. The Snare-line

Β. The Snare-rod

Γ. Mussel Fork, Mussel Breaker, Crab Fork

Δ. The Fishline

9. Tools

Α. The Scraper

Β. The Knife

Γ. The Punch

Δ. Wedge And Hammer

Ε. Use Of Iron

10. Articles Made Of Leather, Hide, Bark

11. Baskets

12. Technical Skills

E. Obtaining Food

1. Seal Hunting

2. Whale Hunting

3. Bird Hunting

Α. Penguins

Β. Cormorants

Γ. Wild Geese

Δ. Steamer Ducks

Ε. Other Species Of Ducks

Ζ. Special Methods Of Capture

4. Hunting Guanacos, Otters, Foxes

5. The Woman In The Food Quest

Α. Food From The Animal Kingdom

Β. Food From The Vegetable Kingdom

6. The Food Quest Throughout The Year

7. The Fuegian Dog

F. Treatment Of Foodstuffs

1. What They Must Do Without

2. How They Divide The Booty

3. How They Prepare The Food

4. How They Eat

5. How They Store Food

G. The Shell Heaps

1. Their Arrangement

2. The Embedded Implements

3. Their Origin

H. The Nomadic Life

1. The Roving Spirit

2. Underway In The Canoe

3. On Land

4. Nomadic Life, The Result Of Environmental Conditions

Part 3 Social Organization And Tribal Custom

A. Courtship And Marriage

A. Proposal And Marriage

1. The Marriageable Age

2. Courtship Of Marriageable Persons

3. The Ideal Marriage Partner

4. Freedom In The Selection Of A Mate

5. The Duty Of Marrying A Widow.

6. Participation Of The Relatives

7. Obstacles To Marriage

8. The Marriage Ceremony

9. Parents-in-law And Children-in-law

B. Married Life

1. Monogamy

2. Polygamy

3. Division Of Labor Between Spouses

Α. Activity Of The Man

Β. Activity Of The Woman

Γ. Collaboration Of The Spouses

4. Relations Between The Spouses

5. Divorce

6. Celibacy

B. Parents And Child

A. The Infant And Its Care

1. Delight In The Child

2. Birth

3. The Parents Of The Newborn Child

4. Treatment Of The Infant

5. Infanticide

6. Child Statistics

7. Naming

8. The Baby's Development

B. The Older Child And His Upbringing

1. Separation Of The Sexes

2. Application Of Training

Α The Teachers

Β Training Practices

Γ. Results Of The Training

3. Girls During The Menarche

Α. Regulations For Girls

Β. Women During The Menses

Γ. Interpretation Of Menstruation

4. Children's Play

Α. Boys' Play

Β. Girls' Play

Γ. Social Games

5. Mutual Relationship Of Parents And Children

C. Kinship And Tribal Society

A. Kinship

1. The Individual Family

2. The Circle Of Relatives

3. Kinship Terms

B. Tribal Society

1. Its Structure

2. Its Leadership

D. Youth Initiation

A. Investigations By Europeans

1. The First Observations

2. My Participation

Α. My First Youth Initiation

Β. My Second Youth Initiation

B. Preparation For The Ceremony

1. Occasion And Duration

2. Long-range Preparation

Α. The Participants

Β. The Candidates

Γ. Leader And Overseer

Δ. The Place Of Assembly

3. More Immediate Preparation

Α. Construction Of The Great Hut

Β. Construction Of The Cookhut

Γ. Guard Duty

C. Procedure Of The Ceremony

1. The Adult Assembly

2. Reception Of The Candidates

Α. Capture In The Camp

Β. Reception In The Great Hut

Γ. The Sponsors

3. Daily Program For The Candidates

Α. External Measures

Β. Instruction

Γ. Work Drills

4. Daily Program For The Adults

Α. General Regulations

Β. Special Formalities

Γ. Song And Dance

D. Conclusion Of The Celebration

1. Reasons For Termination

2. The Final Celebration

3. Meaning And Value Of The Initiation

E. Property Relations

A. Kinds Of Property

1. Common Property

2. Private Property

Α. Personal Possessions

Β. Family Property

B. The Right Of Possession

1. Right Of The Supreme Being As Creator

2. Taking Possession

3. Procurement And Production

4. Barter, Loans, Gifts

5. Violation Of The Right Of Ownership

F. Feuds And Blood Vengeance

A. Causes

B. Ordinary Quarrels

C. Blood Vengeance

G. General Social Obligations

A. Custom And Justice

B. Social Intercourse

1. Special Forms Of Social Intercourse

2. More General Forms Of Communication

C. The Commonweal

1. Rules Of Justice

2. General Welfare

Part 4 The Spiritual World Of The Yamana

A. Religion And Morality

A. Investigations Of The Yamana Religion

1. Opinions Of Travelers

2. Opinions Of Missionaries

3. My Own Conclusions

B. Content Of The Yamana Religion

1. Personality Of The Supreme Being

Α. His Name

Β. His Characteristics

2. Religious Activity

Α. General Practices

Β. Prayers Of Supplication

Γ Prayers Of Thanksgiving

Δ. Laments

Ε. Various Other Expressions

C. Originality Of The Yamana Religion

1. Its Intrinsic Value

2. Its Characteristics

D. General Moral Precepts

1. Their Content

2. Their Originality

B. Belief In The Soul And Mourning

A. The Human Soul

B. Belief In A Future Life

C. Mourning And Death Rites

1. Death

2. The Burial

3. Minor Manifestations Of Sorrow

4. The General Mourning Ceremony

C. Cosmogony And Mythology

A. The Origin Of The World

1. Heaven And Earth

Α. The First Settlers

Β. The Older Sun-man

Γ. The Younger Sun-man

Δ. The Rainbow

Ε The Moon-woman

Ζ. The Deluge

Η. Origin Of These Personalities

2. The Culture-bearers

Α. The Yoalox Family

Β. The Invention Of Fire

Γ. Hunting Birds

Δ. Hunting The Sea Lion

Ε. The Invention Of The Arrowhead

Ζ. The Invention Of The Harpoon Point

Η. How Blubber Was Obtained

Θ. The Beginning Of Libido Sexualis

Ι. The Beginning Of Body Painting

Κ. The Onset Of The First Menstruation

Λ. The First Birth

Μ. The Sister Of The Yoalox Falls In Love

Ν. Dying Is Introduced

Ξ. The Yoalox Go Away

D. Belief In Spirits And Superstitions

A. The Groups Of Spirits

1. Cannibals

2. The Water Spirits

3. The Forest Giants

4. The Guardian Spirits

B. Forms Of Superstition

1. Dreams

2. Superstitious Ideas

Α Superstitions Related To The Animal Kingdom

Β. Superstitions In Everyday Life

E. The Kina Celebration

A. Information Through Europeans

1. Earlier Accounts

2. My Personal Participation

B. Preparation For The Festival

1. Occasion And Duration

2. The Participants

3. The Campsite

4. Building The Great Hut

C. Procedure Of The Festival

1. The Beginning

2. Introduction Of The Candidates

3. The Origin Myth

4. The Daily Program

Α. Daily Program For The Men

Β. Daily Program For The Candidates

Γ. Daily Program Of The Women

5. The Spirit Appearances

Α Preparation And Presentation

Β. The Individual Spirits

D. End Of The Festival

E. Significance For Culture History

F. The Medicine-man System

A. Personality Of The Medicine Man

1. His Relation To The People

2. His Physical Nature

3. His Psychic Nature

B. The Calling Of The Medicine Man

1. Personal Calling

2. The Medicine-man School

Α. Preparation

Β. The Procedure

Γ. The Conclusion

C. Activities Of The Medicine Man

1. His Efforts For Fellow-tribesmen

Α. Healing The Sick

Β. General Assistance

Γ. Harmful Practices

Δ. Feats Of Strength

2. His Relationship To Spirits

Α. The Yefacel

Β. The Haucella

D. Characteristics Of The Medicine-man System

G. Mental Capacity

A. Mental Power And Sensory Activity

1. Mental Activity

2. Character

3. Development Of The Senses

B. General Knowledge

1. Measuring And Counting

2. Time Designations

3. Astonomy

4. Geographical Knowledge

5. Botany And Zoology

6. Medicine

7. The Language

C. Artistic Sense

1. Sense Of Beauty

2. Art Activity

D. Sociability

1. Gatherings

2. Amusements

H. Characteristics Of Yamana Culture

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Publication Information

Author:

Title: The Yahgan: the life and thought of the water nomads of Cape Horn

Published in: Die Feuerland-Indianer [The Fuegian Indians]--Vol. II

Published By: Die Feuerland-Indianer [The Fuegian Indians]--Vol. II Mödling bei Wein: Anthropos-Bibliothek, 1937. HRAF: xv, 1471 p. [incomplete] [original: 365-1185, 1278-1499 p.]: ill., map

By line: Martin Gusinde

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 2003. Computer File

Culture: Yahgan (SH06)

Subjects:

Abstract: This work is a thorough presentation of the data gathered during three field trips. The work is enhanced by Gusinde's numerous and extensive quotes from and critical commentaries on previous writings. Gusinde established close rapport with the Yahgan, reflected by his role as a participant observer in the youth ceremony and KINA (men's society) celebrations. The sections that have been translated treat the economic, social and spiritual aspects of the culture; users should refer to the table of contents for an indication of the full scope of the content of this monograph. The sections that have not been translated deal primarily with the natural environment, a discussion of earlier authors and their works, a history of contact with Westerners, and a recounting of several myths. Gusinde was a professor at Catholic University of America.

Document Number: 1

Document ID: sh06-001

Document Type: Component part(s), monograph

Language: English translation from German

Note: Translation of: [Die Yamana: vom Leben und Denken der Wassernormaden am Kap Hoorn]. The original German text is not included. This translation was also published in 1961 by HRAF Press in five volumes. Includes bibliographical references (p. 1433-1438) Only pages 365-1185 and 1278-1499 have been translated . Translated for the HRAF files by Frieda Schütze in 1961.

Field Date: 1918-1924

Evaluation: Ethnologist-5

Analyst: George R. Bedell ; 1961

Coverage Date: 1918-1924

Coverage Place: Tierra del Fuego, Chile

LCSH: Yahgan Indians

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