Handy, E. S. Craighill (Edward Smith Craighill), 1892-. Native planters in old Hawaii: their life, lore, and environment

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Part One Prehistoric Perspectives

The Ancient Landfall

Early Migrants

The Ecological Setting

Exploratory And Drift Voyages

First Settlement

The Native Hawaiian Horticultural Complex

The Gods Who Brought The Plants

The Effect Of Terrain

Changes In Natural Environment

Basic Patterns Of Culture

Planters As A Class

Terms Connected With Land Culture

The Planters' Knowledge

Horticultural Skills

Pollination

Personal Equation Between Planter And Plant

Kino Lau: Plant And Animal Forms Of Gods

Weather Wisdom

Engineering And Building Skills

The Planters' Crafts And Tools

The Months And The Seasons

The Seasons

The Months Of The Year

Seasonal Occupations

Other Descriptions

Divergent Names Of Months

Phases Of The Moon

Land

Organic Relationship Of The People To The Land

Generic Terms For Land

Island Divisions Or Chiefdoms

Ahupua`a

`ili

Mo`o

Other Terms With Reference To Land Usage

Status Of Landlords

Kuleana After The Great Mahele

Other Land Areas

Ko Kaha Kai

Kula Lands

Kahawai

Wao

Kuahiwi

The Enveloping Sea

Water

Irrigation Ditches (`auwai)

Consecration Of A New `auwai

Sharing Of Flowing Water

Structure Of Aqueducts

Water Rights

The “water Of Life”

Springs Opened By Kane And Kanaloa

Water In Arid Places

Part Two Plants And Animals In The Hawaiian Economy

Subsistence Plantings

Taro

Role And Place In The Culture

The Hawaiian Planter And The Staff Of Life

Lore

Mythological Origin Of Taro

Taro And The God Kane

The Plant And Its Cultivation

Wild Taro

Soil And Planting Methods

Wet-taro Planting

Cuttings For Planting

Planting

Harvesting

Dry-taro Planting

Forest Clearings

Pa-hala Planting

Ha`aheo Planting

Planting In Kona

Planting On Unforested Kula Land

In Kukui Clearings

In Fern Forests

Uses Of Taro

Cooking

Making Poi

Ritual

Medicine

Implements

Digging Sticks

Taro Cutters

Carrying Poles

Sweet Potato (`uala)

`uala Culture In Hawaii

Terms Applied To `uala

Wild Varieties

Planting And Cultivation

Season And Weather

Preparation Of Soil

Irrigation

Vine Cuttings

Planting

Cultivation During Growth

Pests

Harvesting And Storage

Uses

Tools

Ritual Of The `uala Planter

Lore Behind `uala Rituals

Tales Told By `uala Planters

Breadfruit

Planting And Cultivation

Planting Localities

Uses

Sayings

Banana

Native Traditions

Probabilities Of Introduction

Plant Terms And Habit Of Growth

Planting And Cultivation

Seasons Of Planting

Planting Practices

Uses

Sayings And Beliefs

Coconut

Legendary Origins

Special Terms

Planting And Planting Localities

Uses

Sayings

Tools

Yam

Cultivated Varieties

Planting And Cultivation

Planting Localities

Niihau

Kauai

Oahu

Molokai And Lanai

Maui

Hawaii

Uses

Arrowroot

Sugar Cane

Terms

Cultivated Varieties

Planting And Cultivation

Uses

Sayings

Pineapple

`awa

The Oceanic Spread

Planting And Cultivation

General Uses

Preparation

Ritual Use

Prayers And Seances

Utensils

Plantings For Practical And Aesthetic Use

Pandanus

Famous Groves

Terms Applied To Pandanus

General Uses

Lau Hala Mat Making

Sayings

Bamboo

Famous Groves

Uses

Wauke (paper Mulberry)

Probable And Legendary Origins

Planting

Planting Localities

Uses

Gourds

Descriptive Terms

Planting And Cultivation

Uses

Lono, Gourds, Wind, And Rain

Stories And Sayings

Ti

Ceremonial And Psychic Attributes

Primary Uses

Olona

`ilima

`olena (turmeric)

Kukui

Lore

Legendary And Historical Distribution

Terms And Uses

Kou

Hau

Hibiscus

Wild Plants

Wild Vegetable Foods

Outline Of Ornamental And Practical Uses Of Wild Plants

Ornamental

Aesthetic

Practical

Therapeutic Uses 9

Ceremonial Uses

Lore About Wild Plants

Animals Raised And Hunted

Dogs

Dogs As Offerings And As Food

The Dog In Mythology

Hogs

Hog Lore

Offerings To Lono

Wild Goats

Other Non-plant Foods

Chickens

Jungle Fowl Of Polynesia

Moa And The Pele Migration

Colors, Varieties, And Names

Moa As Ritual Sacrifice

Less Prized As Food

Birds

Birds Of The Forest

Sea Birds

Grasshoppers

Fish

Ancient Remainders Of Fishponds

Characteristic Construction And Stonework

Stocking The Ponds

Fresh-water Ponds

Fish Traps

Lore

Part Three Demography Of The Hawaiian Islands

Development Of The Demographic Pattern

First Settlers

Demographic Considerations Throughout The Islands

Kauai

Oahu

Maui

Hawaii

Famine

Areas Of Dearth

Food, Land, Stream, And Sea

Domain Under The Ali`i

Land, Law, And Water

Resources Not Fully Utilized

The Dispersed Community

Location Of Homesteads

Occupational Contrasts

The Community Of `ohana

Individuality

The Farmer's Homestead

The Common House (hale Noa)

The Men's House (mua)

Other Functional Structures

Environmental Adaptation Of The Hale

Family Relationships And Roles In The Kauhale

Men's Work

The Woman's Role

Cooperative Enterprise

Breeding And Feeding: The Groundwork Of Culture

The Hawaiian Man Primarily A Planter

The Planter As A Person

Delights Of Planting

The Planter's Wealth

Exchange

The Pule Ipu Rite

Subincision

Castes

Ali`i

The Konohiki Class

The Kahuna Class

The Maka`ainana

The Kauwa

Maka`ainana And Ali`i

Part Four The Makahiki Harvest Festival

The Makahiki And The Rainy Season

Dating The First Makahiki Festival

The Meaning Of Ka Hiki And Makahiki

The Festival Of Lono, Father-of-waters

Lono And Southerly Storms (kona)

The Lore Of Vulcanism And Rainstorms

Pele's Domain

Lono-makua

The Mythical Rain Cycles

Domain Of Kamapua`a

A Kino Lau Of Lono

Epithets Applied To Lono

Lono In Tahiti And New Zealand

The Makahiki Rituals

The Symbol Of Lono

The “short God” (akua Poko)

The Harvest Offering (ho`okupu)

The Altars Of Lono

Feeding By The “king” (mo`i)

Commemorative Boxing, Games, And Dancing

The Hula In Relation To Planting And Harvest

The Testing Of The Mo`i

Kahoali`i

The Net Of Maoloha

Lono's Canoe

Similar Maori Customs

The Makahiki After Unification Of The Islands

Captain James Cook Welcomed As Lono

The “return Of Lono”

Notes On King's Description

Death Of The “god”

An Interpretation

Shrines And Prayers To Promote Abundance

Part Five Descriptions Of Areas Of Habitation On Each Island

The Island Of Kauai

Geology

Waimea, The Kauai Type Area

Waimea Canyon Area

The Backlanders (kua`aina)

Forest Of The West Canyon Rim Plateau 1

Lower Waimea Valley

Na Kiki-a-`ola: The “menehune Ditch”

Waimea Delta

Waimea Village And The Coastal Environs

Kekaha

Mana

The Upland Determinant

Polihale

The Napali Coast

The Northeastern Coast

The Ko`olau

The Moku Of Puna

Kona, The South District

The Island Of Niihau

The Island Of Oahu

Ko`olau, The Windward Type Area

Round Of The Seasons

Physiography

Tradition And Lore

Southward In Ko`olaupoko

Waiahole (water-of-the-ahole-fish)

Ka`alaea (the-ocherous-earth)

Waihe`e (octopus-water)

Kahalu`u (diving-place)

He`eia (washed-away)

Kane`ohe

Kailua

Waimanalo

Ko`olauloa, North Of The Type Area

Kaipapa`u

La`ie

Malaekahana And Keana

Kahuku

Waialua, The Sunset Coast

Waimea

Wahiawa

Waialua

Mokule`ia

The Wai`anae Region

`ewa, The Leeward Type Area

An Ali`i Stronghold

A Famous Taro Variety

Legends

The Kona Coast Of Oahu

Moanalua

Kalihi

Kapalama

Nu`uanu

Honolulu

Manoa

Waikiki

Palolo And Eastward

Building Of Irrigation Systems On Oahu By Ali`i

The Island Of Maui

Geology

Geography

The Alaloa (“long Road”) And Other Trails

Land Division

Lahaina, The Type Area

Early Descriptions

Ka`anapali

Na Wai Eha (“the Four Streams”)

Hamakua

The Ko`olau

Hana

Kipahulu

Kaupo

Kahikinui

Honua`ula

Kula

The Islands Of Molokai And Lanai

Molokai

Lanai

The Island Of Hawaii

Kona

Kohala

Hamakua

Hilo

Puna

Ka`u, The Type Area

Geology

Prehistoric Perspective

The Colonists Land

Their Subsistence Economy

The Endemic Wilderness Retreats

The Original Endemic Flora 3

Endemic Birds

Postdiscovery Descriptions Of The Area

The Terrain

Environmental Determinants

Geographical Determinism And The Potency Of Heritage

The Climate

Manuka

Kahuku

Pakini

Kama`oa

Wai-o-`ahu-kini

Ka Lae

Ka`alu`alu

Waikapuna

Waiohinu

Na`alehu

Honu`apo

Ninole

Punalu`u

Hilea

Kilauea Volcano

Organic Relationship Of The People To The Land

The Cataclysm Of 1868

Ka`u Areas Of Habitation Described

Manuka

Kahuku

Ka Lae (south Point)

Wai-o-`ahu-kini

Pakini And Kama`oa

Kiolaka`a To Waiohinu

Waiohinu

Punawai-o-ha`ao

Ka`alu`alu

Na`alehu

Waikapuna

Pa`ula

Honu`apo

Ninole

Punalu`u

Hilea

Kapapala

Keauhou

Kilauea

Kamapua`a And Pele: Rainstorm And Verdure Versus Vulcanism

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information

Author:

Title: Native planters in old Hawaii: their life, lore, and environment

Published By: Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1972. xviii, 641 p.: ill.

By line: [by] E. S. Craighill Handy and Elizabeth Green Handy. With the collaboration of Mary Kawena Pukui

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 2003. Computer File

Culture: Hawaiians (OV05)

Subjects: Geography (130); Agriculture (240); Pharmaceuticals (278); Land use (311); Water supply (312); Religious and educational structures (346); Settlement patterns (361); Religious beliefs (770);

Abstract: This study, originally made in the 1930s, is an appraisal of traditional horticulture as it existed in the Hawaiian Islands prior to Euro-American contact. The work describes in detail the various plants raised by the Hawaiians, the types of location and areas in which they were planted, the differentiation of varieties, methods of cultivation, and uses of plants. The document is divided into five major parts dealing in turn with Hawaiian prehistoric perspectives, the various animals and plants significant in the economy, demographic features of the islands, the MAKAHIKI harvest festival, and a description, island by island, of the major Hawaiian Islands ( Kauai, Niihau, Oahu, Maui, Molokai and Lanai and Hawai), in terms of land use, agriculture, mythology, settlement patterns, climate, and topography and geology. Five appendices present data on plant and animal identifications.

Document Number: 5

Document ID: ov05-005

Document Type: Monograph

Language: English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 633-641)

Field Date: 1930s

Evaluation: Ethnologist-4,5

Analyst: John Beierle ; 2002

Coverage Date: late eighteenth century - 1950s

Coverage Place: Hawaiian Islands, United States

LCSH: Hawaiians

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