Krämer, Augustin, 1865-1941. Ralik-Ratak (Marshall Islands):

Table of Contents

Publication Information

I. Discovery And Opening Prior To 1910

Discovery And Opening

The Mission

Sailors Driven Off Course And Attacks

The Names




Ii. Geography And Cartography Climate




Description Of The Land

Ralik Chain

1. Ebon (1) , Name According To Erdland (p. 4) Ebbeeon, “stone Surface” (see P. 241)

2. Namorik (1) , Pronounced Namrik

3. Kili (2) , Djëboár

4. Djëlut (1) , Djalut (pl. 17c And 19d, Photos. 858–865)

5. Ailinglaplap (1) , “big Island”

6. Namo Or Namu (1) (p. 265) 1

7. Lep Or Ellep, 30 Nautical Miles From Guadjlën /kwajalein/ (p. 263 And Footnote 1 On P. 264 /both Pages Untranslated/)

8. Guadjlën (1) (gwadjelin)

9. Lae (1) , “waveless Strip Of Ocean” (2) , Map 4.

10. Udjae Or Wuˇidjae (1) (see Above, Pp. 22 And 37), Epic, Pp. 261–262 /untranslated/

11. Wotto (1) , Meaning Probably “reef Passage,” See P. 22

12. Ailingnae (el., Aling In Aä, “current Atoll”)

13. Bikini (el., P. 5, Bikinni, “fanned By Palms”), See P. 260 /untranslated/, P. 391 Ff.)

14. Ronglap (1) , Rongelap, “big Rong” (map 5, Pl. 17), See Pp. 240, 259 /untranslated/, 262 /untranslated/ And 390ff.)

15. Rongerik (1) , “little Rong” (pl. 19b) (see Pp. 259 /untranslated/, 396).

16. Udjelang (1) Or Wuidjlang (2)

17. Eniwëtok (1)

Ratak Chain

18. Mille (1) , Mile, Map 6, See P. 241.

19. Ngáririk Or Ngárikerik

20. Mëdjro (1) . Map 7. See Pp. 241 And 353.

21. Arno (1) . Map 8.

22. Aur (1) (pp. 257 /untranslated/ And 389)

23. Malóelap (2) (see Pls. 2, 14, And 19e), See Pp. 38 And 240.

24. Ërkup Or Erikup (see “wodje”), Destroyed By Typhoon (p. 9)

25. Wõdje (1)

26. Likiep (1) With No. 27, Djëmo

28. Áeluk (1) Or Ailuk (el., Ailuk, “choppy Current”)

29. Medjit (1) Or Metidj (kotzebue: Miadi, See Ailuk)

30. Taka (1) Or Dakë, And 31. Udjirik (1) Or Wúterek

32. Bikār (1)

33. Bokāk (2)

Iii. Material Culture

A. Physical Appearance, Ornaments, And Clothing

1. Physical Appearance

A. Body Care

B. Physical Appearance (cf. Plates 1, 3)

C. Tattooing

The Tattooing Process

2. Ornaments (cf. Plates 1, 4)

3. Clothing (cf. Plates 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, (12?))

B. Economy

1. Agriculture

A. Food Plants And Fruit Trees

B. Cultivation

2. Animal Husbandry And Hunting

A. Domestic Animals

B. Hunting

3. Fishing

A. Food Fish

B. Apparatus For Fishing (cf. Plates 5, 6, 17, 18?)

Angling Apparatus

Fish Spears

Fish Nets

Weir Baskets

Fish Clubs

Fish Weirs


Baskets For Collecting Fish

Fish Ponds

C. Methods Of Catching Fish (1)

4. Cooking

A. Obtaining Water

B. Making Fire

C. Cooking Places

D. Cooking Implements (cf. Plates 6, 7)

E. Foods And Their Preparation (cf. Plate 6)

Food During Periods Of Famine

Food Taboos

Diet Of The Chiefs


F. Stimulants

C. Crafts And Trade

1. Woodworking

2. Bonework

3. Tortoise Shell Work

4. Coconut Work

5. Shell Work

6. Ropemaking

7. Netmaking

8. Sewing With Leaf Strips

9. Plaiting (1) (cf. Plates 6, 7, … 12, 13)

A. Plaiting Materials

B. Plaiting Implements

C. Plaited Products

10. Trade And Communications



Communication On The Islands

D. House And Settlement

1. The House (cf. Plates 14, 15)

2. Settlements

E. Boats (cf. Plates 16, 17)

Iv. Spiritual Culture H. Nevermann

1. Family And Society


Forms Of Marriage

Marriage Prohibitions

Concluding Marriage

Free Love Life

Sexual Intercourse

Married Life

Division Of Labor

Position Of The Chiefs' Wives (2)






Birth (1)


Stages Of Life


Care Of Children


Boys' Puberty Ceremony

Girls' Puberty Ceremony

Instruction Of The Marriageable Girls

The Kin Group

2. Law And The State

A. Social Levels

B. Weapons And War

1. Weapons (cf. Plate 18)

2. Warfare

C. Law

D. Taboo (cf. Plate 19)

E. Death (cf. Plate 19)



3. Social Life

A. Music And Dances

Musical Instruments

Dance Apparatus

Dance Places


B. Games And Sports

4. Science

A. Navigation Schools

B. The Knowledge Of The Navigators

C. Sea Charts

Practical Navigation

E. Time Reckoning

F. Medicine

G. The Meaning Of The Parts Of The Body

V. Religion And Myths

Personal Research Creation Story

Edao Medjro


Oduldulebën (bën)


Lëlóran Of Bukienvóut (medjro)

Magic, Anidj˘enidj (2) Oracle, Bubu


Souls (see P. 90)

Vi. Stories And Songs

Song Of Laindjin (1) , The Great Navigator Of Lae

Wodja (ailinglaplap)

Ënibing (see P. 56)

Áerek (ailinglaplap)


Djëmo /jemo/


Jumiedj Island (djalut /jaluit/)

Other Legends (rongelap)


To The God Of Lae

Boat Trial

Lókatok Of Rongerik (communicated By Ladjbang Malóelap)

The First Dance

The Invention Of The Boat From Ronglap

Pingelap Ën Gōro (1)

Al In Djella, Song Of The Sailors (new)

Vii. Music. No New Observations.

Ix. Cultural Comparison

X. Indices

1. Flora

2. Fauna

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information


Title: Ralik-Ratak (Marshall Islands):

Published By: Hamburg: Friederichsen, De Gruyter and Co., 1938. HRAF ms: xii, 1-438 p.

By line: Augustin Krämer and Hans Nevermann

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 2010. Computer File

Culture: Marshallese (OR11)

Subjects: External relations (648); External trade (439); Linguistic identification (197); Descriptive somatology (142); Topography and geology (133); Verbal arts (5310); Special garments (292); Ethnobotany (824); Food preparation (252); (413283); Fishing (226); Internal trade (438); Missions (797); Ornament (301); Musical instruments (534); ;

Abstract: This source, by two ethnologists, is a general survey of Marshallese culture. A long portion of the work is devoted to the history of the area, and the geography of the islands. There are sections dealing with material culture, social structure, economic life, and religion, as well as a number of legends. Considerable use is made of the published works of other authors.

Document Number: 2

Document ID: or11-002

Document Type: Monograph

Language: English translation from German

Note: Translation of: [Ralik-Ratak (Marshall Inseln)]. Translated from the German by Charles Brant and John M. Armstrong in 1942 for the Yale Cross-Cultural Survey in connection with the Navy Pacific Islands Handbook Project.

Field Date: 1908-1909

Evaluation: Ethnologist-5

Analyst: James R. Leary ; 1961

Coverage Date: 1788-1938

Coverage Place: Marshall Islands

LCSH: Marshallese


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