Adriani, Nicolaus, 1865-1926. The Bare'e-speaking Toradja of central Celebes (the East Toradja): first volume

Table of Contents

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Chapter I Land And People

1. General Appearance Of Central Celebes.

2. The Bare’e-speaking Toradja (east Toradja Group).

3. Did The Toradja Upon Their Arrival In The Country Drive Out Other Tribes?

The Basin Of The Poso.

4. The Poso Depression.

5. Lake Poso.

6. The Western And Eastern Shore Of The Lake.

7. The South Side Of The Lake.

8. The Origin Of Lake Poso.

9. The Winds And The Fauna Of The Lake.

10. Sunken Villages.

11. Legends Connected With The Lake.

12. Pamona. The Stones Of Separation.

13. Tamoengkoe-mbaloegai. Lasaeo’s Arrival On Earth.

14. Lasaeo’s Quarrel With His Wife.

15. Lasaeo Returns To The Sky.

16. Kojoë, Lasaeo’s Son.

17. Ndori, Lasaeo’s Grandson.

18. Ndori’s Journey To Waiboenta.

19. Visit Of Lasaeo (sawerigading) To Pamona. Distribution Of The Inheritance.

20. Lasaeo As Culture Hero.

21. The Course Of The Poso River.

22. The Plain Of Batoe-nontjoe.

23. The Roads Along The Poso River.

24. The Mountain Country Of The Tomasa.

25. The Lake Dwellers. To Lamoesa.

26. The To Poe’oe-mboto.

The To Bantjea

28. The To Longkea.

29. The To Wingke-mposo.

30. The To Lage.

31. The To Kadomboekoe.

32. The History Of The To Pajapi.

33. Stories About The To Pajapi.

34. The Downfall Of The To Pajapi.

35. The To Pebato In The Place Of The To Pajapi.

36. The Extortions Of The To Napoe.

37. Founding Of Mapane.

38. The Administrative Post Poso.

The Basin Of The Laa

39. The Basin Of The Laa.

40. The To Onda’e And Their Villages.

41. The Downfall Of Wawo-onda’e.

42. The History Of Wawo-ntolo.

43. The Karadja Of Onda’e.

44. The Eastern Mountain Ridge And The Jaentoe Valley.

45. The To Onda’e As Kampenaars.

46. The History Of The To Langgeani.

47. The Palande Area.

48. Tawoealongi.

49. The Pakambia District.

50. The Religio-political Movement “mejapi.”

51. The Inhabitants Of The Laa Plain.

The Basin Of The Kalaena

52. The Course Of The Kalaena And Its Tributaries.

53. The Inhabitants Of The Kalaena Basin.

The Todjo Area 54. The Todjo Area.

55. The Toradja Of Todjo.

56. The To Ampana And The To Wana.

57. The Radjas /rajas/ Of Todjo.

58. The Regalia Of Todjo.

Untitled Section: ...

Chapter Ii Population

1. The Sparseness Of The Population.

2. Reasons For The Sparseness Of The Population.

3. The Arrival Of The Government And The Population Problem.

4. General Appearance Of The Toradja.

5. The Color Of The Skin And What Is Displayed On It.

6. Hair.

7. Eyes And Sense Of Color.

8. Ear, Nose, And Mouth.

9. Hands And Feet.

10. Goiter Swelling Of The Neck (sowo). Mental Deficiency. Epilepsy.

11. Insanity (wando).

12. The Character Of The Toradja.

13. The Basis On Which The Character Develops.

14. Their Sense Of Truth.

15. Their Simplicity And Lack Of Suspicion.

16. Their Vanity.

17. Their Politeness.

18. Their Mental Ability.

19. Their Honesty.

20. Their Manners.

21. Is The Toradja Lazy?

22. The Emotional Life Of The Toradja.

23. His Gratitude.

24. Expressions Of Love.

25. Being Ashamed.

Untitled Section: ...

Chapter Iii The Society

1. The Unity Of The Village Rests On Consanguinity.

1a. The Fear Of Poga’aka And Kasolora.

2. The Three Duties Of The Community.

3. The Splitting Up Of The Village. The Formation Of Tribes.

4. Colonies Of The East Toradja.

5. Social Standings. The Chief.

6. The Task Of The Chief And The Influence Of This On His Character.

7. Dangers Connected With The Chiefship.

8. The Influence Of The Chiefs Outside Their Village.

9. The Rulers Of The Country. The Datoe Of Loewoe’.

10. The Rights Of Wotoe Over The Toradja. The Tribute To Loewoe’.

11. The Sphere Of Influence Of Waiboenta.

12. Other Obligations Of The Toradja To The Datoe Of Palopo.

13. The Power And Prestige Of The Datoe Of Loewoe’.

14. The Story Of La Dondorio And The To Ngojoe.

15. The Datoe-ri-tana Of Mori.

16. The Relationship Of The Datoe-ri-tana To The Datoe Of Loewoe’.

17. The Tribute To The Datoe-ri-tana.

18. The Relationship Of The To Pebato To The Magaoe Of Sigi.

19. The Contact With Parigi.

20. The Ruler (djena) Of Todjo.

21. Slave-holding Tribes.

22. Why Some Tribes Had A Slave Standing And Others Did Not.

23. The Origin Of The Hereditary Slaves. The Relationship Between The Free And The Slaves.

24. The Difference In Character Between The Free And The Slaves.

25. The Lot Of The Slaves.

26. Influence Of Slavery On The Society.

27. The Influence Of Slavery On The Character.

28. The Property Of The Community.

29. The First Contact With The Netherlanders.

30. The Beginning Of The Missionary Work In Central Celebes.

31. The Subjugation Of The East Toradja.

32. The Contact Of The Toradja Society With The Western Administration. The Chiefs.

33. Forced Labor And Taxes.

34. The Government And Slavery.

35. The Christianization Of The East Toradja.

Untitled Section: ...

Chapter Iv Village And House

1. Living In Caves.

2. The Villages.

3. The Moving Of Villages.

4. The Names Of The Villages.

5. The Spot Where The Village Comes To Stand.

6. The Houses Of The East Toradja.

7. The Wood For Housebuilding.

8. The Construction Of The Dwelling.

9. What One Has To Observe In Connection With Building.

10. Good And Bad Days.

11. The Direction Of The Ridge.

12. The Covering Of The Roof.

13. The Stairs.

14. The Hearth.

15. The Making Of Fire.

16. The Arrangement Of The Dwelling.

17. The Consecration Of The Dwelling.

18. The Burning And The Toppling Of A House.

19. The Village Temple (lobo). The Erection.

20. The Arrangement Of The Temple.

Untitled Section: ...

Chapter V Concepts Of Justice

1. The Toradja’s Feeling For Justice.

2. The Judge.

3. Legal Action. Monoentoe.

4. The Termination Of A Legal Case.

5. Fines, Megiwoe.

6. The Size And The Names Of Fines.

7. Taking An Oath.

8. The Oath In Connection With Repudiation.

9. The Ordeal Mogego, Spear Sticking.

10. The Other Ways Of “spear Sticking.”

11. The Ordeal Mentjili, “diving.”

12. Other Kinds Of Ordeals.

13. Corporal Punishments Inflicted Only On Slaves.

14. The Death Penalty For Murder.

15. Injury And Manslaughter.

16. The Death Penalty For Asocial Acts (sorcery, Incest, Adultery, High Treason).

17. The Execution Of The Death Sentence.

18. The Trial For Theft.

19. The Trial For Insult.

20. Trial For Arson.

21. Debt Cases.

22. Credit Bondsmen.

23. Means Of Collecting A Debt. Mebaoela.

24. Monggoeraroe.

25. Mesara’oe.

26. Mopangaja.

27. Slave Justice. Sadjoe Mpowatoea. Mepone.

Untitled Section: ...

Chapter Vi War

1. Wars And Their Immediate Cause.

2. The Feud Between The East Eastern Toraja And The To Kinadoe.

3. The Feud Of The East Toradja With The To Wana And The To Loinang.

4. The Marching Out Of Large And Small Groups.

5. The Woman And War.

6. The Accusation (tadea).

7. The Magic Side Of Head-hunting.

8. Remaining Neutral.

9. Calls For Help.

10. The Equipment Of The Warrior. Swords.

11. Methods Of Testing A Sword.

12. Lances And Shields.

13. Guns.

14. Bow And Arrow.

15. Who Were The Tadoelako?

16. The Tadoelako Is Honored.

17. Prohibitions For The Tadoelako.

18. The Work Of The Tadoelako.

19. The Reward Of The Tadoelako.

20. The String Of Shells (batoe Rangka).

21. Where The String Of Shells Originated.

22. The Use Of The String Of Shells.

23. The String Of Shells Of The Enemy.

24. Dreams About The String Of Shells.

25. The Talisman (gongga) Of The Common Man.

26. Stones In The Gongga.

27. Other Objects In The Gongga.

28. Amulet String (gongga) Originating From Animals.

29. War Medicine.

30. The Ascertaining Of A Good Day.

31. Dreams.

32. The Pounding Of The Provisions.

33. The Accompanying Gift, Bâjari.

34. Divination With An Egg.

35. The Oracle With The Chicken.

36. Divination With A Dog.

37. Divination With The Oracle String.

38. Divination With Bamboo.

39. Omens In Connection With The Departure.

40. Taking Leave In The Temple.

41. The Departure Of The Troop.

42. Bird Sounds.

43. Omens Given By Animals. The Significance Of Natural Phenomena.

44. Feeding The Troop On The Way To The Enemy.

45. Life In The Bivouac.

46. The Many Things One Has To Look Out For En Route.

47. Those Who Have Remained At Home. Morame.

48. The Scouts.

49. Malapa Manoe.

50. The Return Of The Scouts.

51. Calling The Soul Of The Enemy.

52. Cooking The Attack Rice.

53. The Guarding Of The Camp.

54. Lying In Ambush.

55. Carelessness Of The Fighting Parties.

56. Laying Siege To The Village.

57. Bravery.

58. The Women In The Village Under Attack.

59. Bewilderment Through Fright (tontoa).

60. The Besieged Village.

61. The Surrender Of The Village

62. Concluding Peace.

63. Concluding An Alliance.

64. Losses In War.

65. What Was Done With The One Slain.

66. Success Fails To Come. Mosalaa.

67. Head And Scalp.

68. What Was Done With The Skull.

69. What Was Done With The Scalp.

70. War Captives.

71. The War Captive In The New Tribe.

72. Return To The Village.

73. Fear Of The Soul (angga) Of The Slain.

74. The Meeting With The Villages Left Behind.

75. Possessed In The Mind.

76. The Making Of The Towoegi.

77. Entering The Temple. The Temple Feast, Moganda.

78. The Return After An Unsuccessful Expedition.

79. Meroboe.

80. Moënto.

81. The Head-hunters’ Feast (mompeleleka).

82. The Towoegi Is Brought Into The Temple.

83. Fighting The Articles Of Clothing.

84. The Invocations Of The Village Spirits (mesomba, Mebao).

85. The Last Act Of The Head-hunting Feast (moarosi).

86. The End Of The Feast. Motoë.

87. Honors For The Men.

Untitled Section: ...

Chapter Vii The Cosmos

1. The Earth. Earthquake.

2. The Sky.

3. The Course Of The Sun.

4. The Rising And Setting Of The Sun.

5. The Sun Is Not Worshiped.

6. The Cock Calls The Sun.

7. The Children Of The Sun And Moon.

8. Eclipse Of The Sun.

9. Signs On The Sun And Dreams Of The Sun.

10. The Sun As A Means Of Transportation.

11. What Is Related About The Moon.

12. The Man In The Moon.

13. Signs On The Moon. Eclipse Of The Moon.

14. Worship Of The Moon.

15. Tales About The Moon.

16. Stars Were Once People.

17. All Sorts Of Particulars About The Stars.

18. Comets.

19. The Evening Star And The Morning Star.

20. The Constellation “cock.”

21. The Story About Indo I Ramboee.

22. Manoe-tadia Has A Foot Broken.

23. The Story About Bora-oemonto And Manoe-mbaraka.

24. Worship Of The Stars.

25. How Rain Comes About.

26. Souls Of The Dead And Gods Have Power Over The Rain.

27. Rain And Water Bring The Power Of Life To Man.

28. Rain Coupled With Sunshine.

29. Prohibitions During A Rain.

30. What Makes It Rain.

31. The Influence Of Animals And Plants On Rain. Omens Of Rain And Drought.

32. What Evokes Storms.

33. Means By Which One Tries To Lay A Storm.

34. Thunder And Lightning.

35. All Kinds Of Beliefs In Connection With The Appearance Of A Rainbow.

36. The Rainbow As A Path To The Sky.

Untitled Section: ...

Chapter Viii The Life Of The Soul

A. The Soul During Life On Earth.

1. The Name For The Soul: Tanoana.

1a. The Navel Soul, Angga Mpoese, Poee-roee.

2. Other Names For The Soul: Lamoa, Raoa, Raja.

3. The Abode Of The Tanoana.

4. The Forms Of The Tanoana.

5. Sneezing.

6. Dreams.

7. Interpretation Of Dreams.

8. The Significance Of The Hair. Hair As A Source Of Strength.

9. Hair As Part Of The Whole Person.

10. Head Hair As Scapegoat.

11. Blood As A Source Of Strength.

12. Blood As Scapegoat And Oracle.

13. Secretions Of The Body Contain Vital Strength. Saliva And Sweat.

14. The Strength Of Feces, Urine, And Farts.

15. The Strength Of The Breath (talking And Laughing).

16. The Power Of The Voice.

16a. The Effect Of A Look.

17. Werewolves And Sorcerers 7 .

18. The First Type Of Werewolves. Taoe Mepongko.

19. How The Werewolf Goes To Work.

20. Werewolves Feed On Corpses.

21. Story Of A Taoe Mepongko.

22. The Second Type Of Werewolves. Taoe Meboetoe.

23. Story Of A Taoe Meboetoe.

24. How One Can Recognize A Werewolf And How One Can Become One.

25. The Consequences Of An Encounter With A Werewolf.

26. The Fear Of Werewolves.

27. The Trial Of Werewolves.

28. The Third Type Of Werewolves, To Lamboenoe.

29. Werewolfism And The Western Administration.

B. The Soul After Death.

30. The Soul After Death.

31. A Human Being Is Not Aware Of Having Died.

32. The Death-soul Comes In Contact With Human Beings.

33. Where The Death-soul Goes.

34. The Way Taken By The Death-souls That Go Directly To The Sky.

35. The Death-soul Dies Repeatedly.

36. Souls That Do Not Go To The Underworld. Bolinde. Pontianak.

37. The Journey Of The Death-soul To The Realm Of The Shades Under The Earth.

38. The Fingernail Tree.

39. The Pinang Tree At The Entrance To The Underworld, And The Pig At Its Foot.

40. The River Sambira-dolo, And The Bridge Over It.

41. Langkoda, The Judge In The Hereafter.

42. Other Details On The Way To The Land Of Souls.

43. The City Of The Dead.

44. Special Abodes Of The Death-souls.

45. Stories Of Visits By The Living To The Realm Of The Dead.

46. Those Apparently Dead.

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information

Author:

Title: The Bare'e-speaking Toradja of central Celebes (the East Toradja): first volume

Published By: Amsterdam: Noord-Hollandsche Uitgevers Maatschappij, 1950. HRAF MS: 13, 714 p. [original: 12, 478 p.]

By line: N. Adriani and Albert C. Kruyt

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 1997. Computer File

Culture: Eastern Toraja (OG11)

Subjects:

Abstract: This is the first of a series of three volumes by Adriani and Kruyt dealing with the general ethnography of the Eastern Toraja of central Celebes. This volume deals with general information on the land and the people of central Celebes, on Toraja society, the village, house and temple construction, warfare, justice, cosmology and the soul. The document contains detailed and well rounded data on the topics of warfare, concepts of justice and their application, house construction, cosmology and beliefs about the soul, both prior to and subsequent to death. These data were collected by the authors not only during their own field work but also from information contained in other works.

Document Number: 2

Document ID: og11-002

Document Type: Monograph

Language: English

Note: Translation of: [De Bare'e sprekende Toradjas van Midden-Celebes (de Oost-Toradjas) eerste deel]. The original Dutch text is not included. Translated for the HRAF files by Jenni Karding Moulton.

Field Date: 1892-1932

Evaluation: Linguists, Missionaries-5

Analyst: John Beierle ; Irving Rosenthal ; 1969-1971

Coverage Date: not specified

Coverage Place: Celebes, Indonesia

LCSH: Toraja (Indonesian people)

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