Geertz, Clifford. The religion of Java

Table of Contents

Publication Information


Part One The “abangan” Variant

Chapter 1 The Slametan Communal Feast As A Core Ritual

The Slametan Pattern

The Meaning Of The Slametan

Chapter 2 Spirit Beliefs

Memedis: Frightening Spirits

Lelembuts: Possessing Spirits

□ujuls: Familiar Spirits

□emits: Place Spirits

□anjangs: Guardian Spirits

The Meaning Of Spirit Beliefs

Chapter 3 The Slametan Cycles

Pétungan: The Javanese Numerological System

Costs Of Slametans

Chapter 4 The Slametan Cycles: Birth





Chapter 5 The Slametan Cycles: Circumcision And Marriage

Circumcision: Sunatan

Marriage: Kepanggihan

Social And Economic Aspects Of Circumcision And Wedding Ceremonies

Chapter 6 The Slametan Cycles: Death

Funerals: Lajatan

Beliefs And Attitudes Concerning Death

Chapter 7 The Slametan Cycles: Calendrical, Village, And Intermittent Slametans

Calendrical Slametans

The Village Slametan: Bersih Désa

Intermittent Slametans

Chapter 8 Curing, Sorcery, And Magic

The □ukun: Curer, Sorcerer, And Ceremonial Specialist

Curing Techniques

Theory Of Disease And Curing

The Possessed Curer: □ukun Tiban

Secondary Curing Methods: Magic, Drugs, And Western Medicine


Chapter 9 Permai: A Modern Abangan Cult

Part Two The “santri” Variant

Chapter 10 Santri Versus Abangan

Islam: A General Introduction

The Development Of Islam In Indonesia

Santri Versus Abangan: General Differences

Chapter 11 The Development Of Islam In Modjokuto

The Rise Of Modernism: 1910–1940

The Japanese Period: 1942–1945

The Republican Period: 1945 To The Present

Chapter 12 Conservative Versus Modern: The Ideological Background

1. Fate Versus Self-determination

2. Totalistic Versus Narrowed Religion

3. Syncretic Versus Puristic Islam

4. Religious Experience Versus Religious Behavior

5. Custom And Scholasticism Versus Pragmatism And Rationalism

Conservative And Modern Islam And The Traditional Javanese Religious Outlook

Chapter 13 Patterns Of Internal Organization Of The Santri Community

Political-religious Leadership

Political-religious Activity

Political-religious Organization

Conservative Versus Modern: A Balanced Opposition

Chapter 14 The Santri Educational System

Pon□ok: The Traditional Pattern

Langgar And Mosque: The Local Santri Community

Tarékat: Traditional Islamic Mysticism

Pon□ok To Sekolah: The Santri Educational System In Modjokuto

The Pon□ok Pattern In Modjokuto

Madrasah: The Conservative School In Modjokuto

The Modern Religious School In Modjokuto

Religion In The Public Schools In Modjokuto

Chapter 15 The Administration Of The Moslem Law: Islam And The State In Modjokuto

The General Organization Of The Ministry Of Religion

The Local Organization Of The Ministry Of Religion

Marriage And Divorce

Religious Foundations And The Pilgrimage

Religious Propaganda And Village Religious Officials

The Ministry Of Religion And The Santri Political Parties

The Islamic State: The Santri Approach To The Problem Of Church And State

Chapter 16 The Santri Ritual Pattern

The Prayers

The Friday Service

The Fast

Part Three The “prijaji” Variant

Chapter 17 The Background And General Dimensions Of Prijaji Belief And Etiquette

The Development Of A “great Tradition”

Gentry And Peasantry In Java

Basic Concepts In The Prijaji World-view

Prijaji Versus Abangan: General Differences

Literati Versus Intelligentsia

The General Dimensions Of Prijaji Belief

The Role Of Etiquette

Linguistic Etiquette

Chapter 18 The Role Of Classical Art

Wajang: The Shadow Play

Wajang Stories

Prijaji Versus Abangan Views Of The Wajang

Prijaji Interpretations Of The Wajang

The Gamelan: Javanese Music

The Tembang: Javanese Poetry

The Djogèd: Javanese Dance

Ba□ik: Javanese Textile Dyeing

Classical Javanese Art: Summary

Chapter 19 The Role Of Popular Art

Popular Drama: Wajang Wong, Ke□oprak, And Ludrug

Street Dancers: Klè□èk, Djaranan, And Djanggrung

The Tajuban: A Javanese Party


Contemporary Art

Orchestras And Popular Singers

Contemporary Literature, Drama, And Motion Pictures

Contemporary Art And The Emerging “youth Culture”

Chapter 20 Mysticism

The Theory Of Mysticism

1. The Inner Connection Between Happiness And Unhappiness

2. The Fundamental Religious Equation

3. The Search For Ultimate Enlightenment And “this-worldly” Mysticism

4. Mystical Discipline

5. Metaphysical Psychology

6. The Teacher ( Guru )—student ( Murid ) Pattern

7. The Underlying Identity Of Individuals And The Organic Theory Of Social Organization

8. Religious Relativism

Chapter 21 The Mystical Sects

Budi Setia


Kawruh Bedja

Ilmu Sedjati

Kawruh Kasunjatan

The Social Implications Of The Mystical Sects

Part Four Conclusion: Conflict And Integration

Chapter 22 Conflict And Integration

Religion And Society In Modjokuto

Religion And Social Conflict

Ideological Conflicts

Class Conflicts

Political Conflicts

Psychological Factors

Religion And Social Integration

Traditionalism And The Inherited Common Culture

Nationalism And The Projection Of A New Common Culture

Mixed Types And Marginal Groups: Social Structural Factors

Tolerance And Pluralistic Social Integration

The Holidays—ceremonies Of Social Integration And Conflict

National Holidays

Rijaja: The End Of Fast Holiday

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information


Title: The religion of Java

Published By: Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, [1960]. xvi, 396 p.: ill., maps

By line: Clifford Geertz

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 2010. Computer File

Culture: Javanese (OE05)

Subjects: Organized ceremonial (796); Religious denominations (795); Theological systems (779); Classes (565); General character of religion (771); Ethnopsychology (828); Ethnosociology (829); Spirits and gods (776); Drama (536); Sociolinguistics (195); Education system (871); Religious intolerance and martyrs (798); Political parties (665);

Abstract: This source is a detailed descriptive account of Javanese religion in Modjokuto. It is divided into three sections. The section on Abangan religion includes information on the slametan rituals, spirit beliefs, curing, sorcery, magic, and the Permai cult. The section on Santri religion includes information on the Santri vs. the Abangan, the development of Islam in Modjokuto, conservatives vs. moderns, the internal organization of the Santri community, Muslim law and education, and the Santri ritual pattern. The section on the religion of the Prijaji includes information on Prijaji belief and etiquette, classical and popular art, mysticism, and the mystical sects. Geertz concludes the source with a discussion of disruptive and integrative factors in this sort of religious environment.

Document Number: 18

Document ID: oe05-018

Document Type: Monograph

Language: English

Field Date: 1952-1954

Evaluation: Ethnologist-5

Analyst: Marlene Martin ; 1982

Coverage Date: 1952-1954

Coverage Place: Mojokerto, East Java Province, Indonesia

LCSH: Javanese (Indonesian people)/Java (Indonesia)--Religion


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