Barton, Roy Franklin, 1883-1947. The religion of the Ifugao

Table of Contents

Publication Information

I. Introduction

Orientation And Comparisons


The Deities

Role Of Diffusion

Reasons For The Ifugao’s Expansive Trend In Religion

Ii. The Pantheon

The Locally Least Variable Deities

1. Matungulan—the “paybackables”

2. Napulungot—“clustered-villages” Deities

3. Manahaut, Algo, Bulan—“deceiver, Sun, Moon”—gods Of War And Sorcery

4. Gahidu—the Omen Deities

5. Maknongan Or Nahigaiyan—gods Of Reproduction

Deities Of Social Relations

6. Halupe—the “convincers”

7. Hidit—regulators Of Relations Between Enemies

Sub-group Hinipaiyan:

8. Pili—guardians Of Property And Upper-class Prestige

Messenger Deities And Gods Of The Winds

9. Makalun Or Monkontad—the Messengers

10. Puok—gods Of The Winds

Exclusively Pathogenic

11. The Umaladang (“spiralers-up”)—dysentery Deities

12. The Pumihdol—boil And Abscess Producers

13. The Liblibaiyu—liver-attacking Deities

14. The Tinikmal—headache Deities

Mabaki —deified Myth Characters:

Myth Characters And Deified Technology:

15. The Bulbulnit—wound-symptomers

16. The Baiyun—arthritis-afficters

17. The Baiyad—“payments” Deities

18. The Gatui—harpy Deities

19. The Bumugi—“the Spitters”

Various Miscellaneous Classes

20. Hipag—minor Deities Of War

21. Kiwil—talisman-activators

Sub-group: Deified Kiwil Attributes

22. Alabal—deities Of The Chase

23. Bulol—granary Idol Deities

24. Monduniug—mountainers

25. Bakaiyauwon—hunting Spirits

26. Taiyaban—flying Monsters

27. Pogtan—ending Deities

28. Pinading ( Or Bibio )— Place Spirits

29. Imbagaiyon—conductors Of Souls

30. Angob—ghoul And Cannibol Deities

31. Banig—ghosts

32. Pumupud ( Or Kolkolibag )— Obstetric Deities

33. Binudbud—“wrapping” And “tying” Deities

Sub-class Hupol [“pacification”]—pacificators

34. Maki-ubaiya—“fond Of Ubaiya”

35. Hawat And Buyun—divination Deities

Classes Of Deities Not Treated In This Volume

An Attempt At Statistical Recapitulation Of The Pantheon

Iii. Some Of The More Important Rites

Of Rites In General

Agba—divination Rites

Hunting Rites

Hill-farm Rites

Rice Ritual

Prestige Feasts

The Baiyah ( C.i. ) Or Uyauwe ( Kiangan )

Lidum “ties” For The Prestige Feast Of Tadona

Sale Of A Slave

Omgal—debt Collection Rites


Rites Connected With Head-hunting (ngaiyu)

Dalung—mock-head-hunt Rites

Head-losers’ Rites

Hidit—peacemaking Rites

Marriage Of Kindred

Idang—divorce Rite

Halag—the “women’s Religion”

Difficult Birth Rites

Death Rites

Rites Before Entombment

Post-entombment Rites

Second Dirge For Recalling The Soul

Funeral Rites For Children

Bogwa—second Funeral

“funeral While Living”

Forms Of Interment

Statistical Consideration Of The Ritual

Iv. Reflections And Conclusions

Magical Basis Of The Religion

Ifugao “worship”: The Ritual Approach


The Historical Development Of The Religion

Functional Roles

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information


Title: The religion of the Ifugao

Published By: Menasha, Wis.: American Anthropological Association, 1946. 219 p.: ill.

By line: R. F. Barton

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 1999. Computer File

Culture: Ifugao (OA19)

Subjects: Cereal agriculture (243); Accumulation of wealth (556); Theory of disease (753); General character of religion (771); Cosmology (772); Warfare (726); Aftermath of combat (727); Spirits and gods (776); Burial practices and funerals (764); Mourning (765); Prayers and sacrifices (782); Ritual (788);

Abstract: Roy F. Barton (1883-1947) spent more than a decade living with the Ifugao. He first went to the Philippines in 1906. Two years later he was appointed Supervising Teacher of Ifugao Subprovince, and he held this position until 1916, when he returned to the United States. In 1937 he carried on further fieldwork among the Ifugao under the auspices of the Ethnological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He returned to the islands again in 1940, but his work was interrupted by the Japanese invasion -- he was interned and many of his notes were lost. He was, however, able to save a number of valuable manuscripts, including that of this monograph, which was published shortly after his release. In this authoritative study, Barton describes Ifugao religion and magic, discusses their social function, and attempts to trace their development. However, detailed as this monograph is, it is but the first of two projected volumes, and hence, though the Ifugao pantheon is described with a ‘fair degree of completeness,’ the various rituals are treated in an abbreviated fashion. The latter are dealt with more fully in source 20.

Document Number: 1

Document ID: oa19-001

Document Type: monograph

Language: English


Includes index

Field Date: 1908-1941

Evaluation: Ethnologist

Analyst: Gary S. Vecelius; 1955/1974

Coverage Date: 1908-1941

Coverage Place: Kiangan, Bitu, Ligauwe areas, northern Luzon, Philippines

LCSH: Ifugao (Philippine people)


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