Cashdan, Elizabeth A.. Trade and reciprocity among the River Bushmen of northern Botswana

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Introduction

Chapter I Theoretical Arguments

Two Kinds Of Exchange

The Two Regions Compared

Assumptions

Specialization And Trade On The Botletle River

Coping With Risk On The Nata River—generalized Reciprocity

Chapter Ii People And History Of The Nata And Botletle Rivers

The River Bushmen

Distributions

Physical Type

Language

Kinship

Totem Groups

Traditional Economy

Effects Of Competition

Botletle History

Nata History

Competition And Trade

Chapter Iii Environment And Settlement Patterns

Physiography And Environment—botletle

Physiography And Environment—nata

Settlement

Nata Settlement

Botletle Settlement

Chapter Iv Production And Exchange On The Botletle River

Methods Of Data Collection

How Much More Productive Is The Floodplain Zone?

Variance In Productivity

Obtaining Maize Without Cultivation: Non-trade Options

Cattle Ownership

Mafisa

Wage Work

Game And Bushfoods

How Exchange On The Nata And Botletle Differs: Summary Data

What Items Are Traded?

Milk

Firewood

Mogwana Berries

Wild Food Resources From The Central Kalahari Game Reserve

Pricing Patterns On The Botletle: Why Standard Prices?

Determinants Of Trading Partners: Location Vs. Social Ties

The Bantu Buyers: Who Does The Transport?

Cultivation Among The Botletle Bushmen

The Bushman Gardens: Why Plant At All?

Recent Trends

Problems In The Adoption Of Food Production By Hunter-gatherers

Concluding Remarks—verification

Concluding Remarks—optimality

Chapter V Generalized Reciprocity—coping With Risk On The Nata River

Generalized Reciprocity And Risk Reduction

Grain Exchange

Productivity Of Bushmen And Bantu

Buffers For Variance In Crop Production

Concluding Remarks Concerning Verification

The Salt Trade

Summary And Conclusions

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information

Author:

Title: Trade and reciprocity among the River Bushmen of northern Botswana

Published By: Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms International, 1980 [1988 copy]. 4, 12, 205p.: ill., maps

By line: Elizabeth Ann Cashdan

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 2005. Computer File

Culture: San (FX10)

Subjects: THEORETICAL ORIENTATION IN RESEARCH AND ITS RESULTS (121); LINGUISTIC IDENTIFICATION (197); TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY (133); CLIMATE (132); SOIL (134); PRODUCTION AND SUPPLY (433); GIFT GIVING (431); EXCHANGE TRANSACTIONS (437); FOREIGN TRADE (439); ACCULTURATION AND CULTURE CONTACT (177);

Abstract: This source attempts to explain differences in exchange and reciprocity in the Botletle and Nata River areas of northern Botswana. The two study areas are inhabited by the same ethnic groups -- River Bushmen and Bantu -- however, one area is characterized by ethnic specialization and trade, while in the other trade is limited and networks of generalized reciprocity predominate. The author attributes the differences to environmental factors. The Botletle River area is diverse, but limited in resources; the author argues that these conditions favor specialized trade as a way of buffering the spatial variability in resources. The Nata River area, on the other hand, is a more homogeneous zone that lacks any limited resources; these conditions, the author argues, do not favor trade specialization and do favor generalized reciprocity as a mechanism for minimizing subsistence risks and buffering temporal variability in resources. The file user should be aware that in the author's discussions of the ethnic groups in the two study areas, it is not always clear to what extent the information presented relates to the River Bushmen.

Document Number: 21

Document ID: fx10-021

Document Type: Monograph

Language: English

Note: UM8012540. Thesis (Ph.D.) -- University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, 1979.

Field Date: 1975-1977

Evaluation: Ethnologist-5

Analyst: Gerald Reid ; 1988

Coverage Date: 1850-1977

Coverage Place: Nata and Botletle River areas, northern Botswana

LCSH: San (African people)

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