Junod, Henri Alexandre, 1863-1934. The life of a South African tribe: vol. 2

Table of Contents

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Fourth Part Agricultural And Industrial Life

Chapter I Agricultural Life

A. The Land And The Native System Of Land Tenure.

I. The Nature Of The Soil.

Ii. Native System Of Land Tenure.

B. Products Of The Soil.

I. Cereals.

Ii. Vegetables.

Iii. Trees And Fruits.

C. Agricultural Customs.

I. The Agricultural Year.

Ii. Agricultural Taboos.

D. Preparation Of Food And Drink.

I. Fire And Salt.

Ii. Food.

Iii. Drink.

E. Live Stock Breeding.

I. Oxen.

Ii. Other Domestic Animals.

F. Hunting And Fishing.

I. Big Game Hunting.

Ii. Psinyama-nyamana. The Flesh Of Small Animals.

Iii. Fishing.

Chapter Ii Industry Of The Thongas.

A. Clothing And Ornaments.

I. The Evolution Of Costume.

Ii. Ornaments.

B. Habitation.

C. Utensils.

I. Pottery.

Ii. Basket-work.

Iii. Wood-carving.

Iv. Metallurgy.

D. Commerce.

E. General Observations On Native Industry.

Fifth Part Literary And Artistic Life

Chapter I Characteristics Of The Bantu Intellect.

A. The Noun And The Power Of Classification.

B. The Verb And The Power Of Combination.

C. Conjunctions And The Power Of Argument.

D. Adverbs And The Power Of Description.

E. The Numerals, And The Want Of An Arithmetical Sense.

F. The Literary Sense Of The Thongas.

Chapter Ii Thonga Folklore.

A. Proverbial Sayings And Riddles.

I. Proverbial Sayings.

Ii. Riddles.

B. Thonga Songs.

I. Thonga Poetry And Thonga Poets.

Ii. Lyric Poetry.

Iii. Epic Poetry.

Iv. Satiric Poetry.

V. Dramatic Poetry.

Vi. Action Songs, Or Songs Sung While At Work.

Vii. Incantations.

Viii. Songs Accompanying Tales And Games.

C. Folk-tales.

I. The Place Occupied By Folk-tales In The Life Of The Tribe.

Ii. Classification Of Thonga Folklore And Its Literary Value.

Iii. The Ethnographic Value Of The Tales.

Iv. The Moral And Philosophical Value Of The Tales.

V. Animal Folklore.

1) Ñwashisisana, The Hare. (1)

2) The Hare And The Lion.

3) The Hare And The Baboon.

4) The Hare's Hoe.

Vi. The Wisdom Of The Little Ones.

The Disobedient Child And The Big Snake.

The Magic Cattle.

Vii. The Ogre Tales.

The Ziniko Ogres.

Viii. Moral Tales.


Ix. Tales Founded On Real Facts.

The Child That Was Carried Off By A Baboon.

Those Who Only Laugh Once (ba Ka Mahleka-kañwe).

X. Foreign Tales.

The Unnatural Mother And The Girl With A Star On Her Forehead.

Chapter Iii Music.

A. Musical Instruments.

1) Wind Instruments.

2) Stringed Instruments.

3) The Timbila Or Bantu Xylophone.

B. A Collection Of Thonga Tunes.

C. The Musical System Of The Thongas.

Sixth Part Religious Life And Superstitions.

Chapter I Conceptions Of The Thongas Regarding Nature And Man.

A. Conceptions Regarding Nature.

I. Origin Of The World.

Ii. The Celestial World. (thonga Astronomy).

Iii. Cosmographic And Meteorological Phenonomena.

1) The Wind.

2) Native Geography.

3) Earthquakes And Rainbows.

4) Lightning.

5) The Problem Of Rain And The Way Thongas Deal With It.

A) The Causes Which Prevent Rainfall And The Rites By Which They Are Removed.

B) Rain Charms.

Iv. The Inorganic World.

V. The Vegetable World. Thonga Botany.

Vi. The Animal World.

B. Conceptions Regarding Man.

I. The Origin Of Man.

1) The Creation Of Man.

2) The Cause Of Death.

Ii. The Various Human Races.

Iii. The Human Body.

1) Ideas Of Anatomy.

2) Physiological Notions.

Iv. The Human Soul.

1) Individual Ideas.

2) Collective Beliefs.

Chapter Ii Religion.

A. Ancestrolatry.

I. The Ancestor-gods (psikwembu).

1) The Name Of The Ancestor-gods.

2) Categories Of Ancestor-gods.

3) The Abode Of The Ancestor-gods And Their Mode Of Life.

4) The Sacred Woods.

5. Relations Between Ancestor-gods And Their Living Descendants.

Ii. The Means Of Propitiation. Offerings And Sacrifices.

1) Classification Of Offerings.

A) Individual And Family Offerings.

Simple Offerings (gandjela).

Sacramental Offerings Or Ku Hahla (ro.), Phahla (dj.).

B) National Offerings.

2) The Main Elements Of Ancestor Worship.

A) The Priesthood.

B) The Thonga Conception Of The Offerings.

C) Prayers.

D) The Divine Nature Of The Ancestor-gods.

Iii. General Characteristics Of Ancestrolatry.

B. The Conception Of Heaven.

I. The Definition Of Heaven.

Ii. Customs Connected With The Conception Of Heaven.

1) Heaven, Twins And Rain.

2) Heaven And The “nunu.”

3) Heaven, Storms And Robbers.

4) Heaven And The Balungwana.

C. Concluding Remarks On Thonga Religion.

I. The Origin Of The Conception Of Heaven.

Ii. The Antiquity Of Ancestrolatry.

Iii. The Relation Between Ancestrolatry And The Conception Of Heaven.

Chapter Iii Magic

A. Medical Art.

I. The Medicine-men.

Ii. Medical Practices.

Iii. Conception Of Disease.

B. Possession.

I. The Spirits Which Cause The Disease.

Ii. Beginning And Diagnosis Of The Disease.

Iii. The Treatment Of Possession, Or Exorcism.

1) The Drum Performance (gongondjela).

2) The Rite Of The Gobo Basin.

3) The Appeasement By Blood (ku Thwaza).

4) The Final Purification Of The Hondlola And Investing With Amulets (timfisa).

Iv. The New Condition Of The Exorcised.

1) Protective Rites.

2) Propitiatory Rites.

3) Development Of Subliminal Faculties.

4) The Society Of The Exorcised.

5) Funeral Rites Of The Exorcised.

6) Conclusion On Possession.

C. Witchcraft.

I. Black Magic (buloyi).

1) The Baloyi.

2) The Crimes Of The Baloyi.

Ii. White Magic And Magicians.

1) Distinction Between Magicians And Wizards.

2) Various Categories Of Magicians.

3) Some Thonga Magicians.

Iii. The Method Of Dealing With Wizards.

1) Protective Methods.

2) Method Of Disclosing The Baloyi.

A) The Enchanted Horn.

B) The Enchanted Flute.

C) The Rera Nyiwa, Or Ba Hungwe.

D) The Smelling-out Procedure.

E) The Mondjo Ordeal.

3) The Punishment Of Witchcraft.

Iv. Concluding Remarks On Witchcraft.

D. Divination.

I. Omens.

Ii. Les Important Means Of Divination.

Iii. The Hakati.

Iv. The Divinatory Bones (bula).

1) The Objects Composing The Set Of Divinatory Bones.

2) The Consultation Of The Divinatory Bones And The Rules For Their Interpretation.

3) Some Cases Of Astragalomancy.

A) The Case Of The Sick Mother (p. 557).

B) The Battle Of Moudi (p. 558).

C) Prophecy Of A Migration (p. 559).

4) The Initiation Of The Diviners.

5) The Importance Of The Divinatory Bones.

Chapter Iv Taboo And Morality.

A. The Taboo.

I. Classification Of Taboos.

Ii. Some Remarks On The Taboos.

B. Moral Restraints.

C. Relation Between Taboo, Sacredness And Morality.

Publication Information

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Publication Information


Title: The life of a South African tribe: vol. 2

Published By: London: Macmillan and Co., Limited, 1927. 660 p.: ill.

By line: Henri A. Junod

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 2010. Computer File

Culture: Tsonga (FT06)

Subjects: Cultural identity and pride (186); Settlement patterns (361); Real property (423); Community structure (621); Community heads (622); Chief executive (643); Inheritance (428); Judicial authority (692); Ingroup antagonisms (578); Localized kin groups (618); Highways and bridges (491); Tillage (241); Annual cycle (221); Mutual aid (476); Mythology (773); Labor supply and employment (464); Division of labor by gender (462); External relations (648); Sacred objects and places (778); Cult of the dead (769); Marriage (580); Visiting and hospitality (574); Avoidance and taboo (784); Diet (262); Alcoholic beverages (273); Burial practices and funerals (764); Prophets and ascetics (792); Celibacy (589); Family relationships (593); Polygamy (595); Magical and mental therapy (755); Kinship terminology (601); Kin relationships (602); Cousins (605); Offenses and sanctions (680); Ethnometeorology (821);

Abstract: This is the second volume of Junod's definitive work on the Thonga tribe, the first volume of which may be found as source number 1 in this file. This volume is divided into three general parts: the first deals with the agricultural and industrial life of the people, the second with their literary and artistic life, and the third with religion and superstitition. The first section contains a good deal of information on the material culture of the Thonga--their food and drink, their clothing and ornamentation, and their utensils--as well as material on their agricultural customs and techniques, food-getting activities and commerce. The second division includes valuable information on their language, folklore and music, and texts of songs, proverbs, riddles and folktales are provided. The last and longest section covers the entire gamut of Thonga religious life and superstitions, emphasizing, for example, the native conceptions of nature and man; ancestrolatry and concepts of heaven; magic, including medical art, spirit possession, witchcraft and divination; taboos and conceptions of morality.

Document Number: 2

Document ID: ft06-002

Document Type: Monograph

Language: English

Note: Pp. 585-633 contain appendices, some of which have not been marked for categories since the information provided applies to the Bantu in general and only incidentally to the Thonga. The index and glossary of native terms for both volumes I and II will be found in category 104 or category 116, pp. 645-660.

Field Date: 1895-1909

Evaluation: Missionary-5

Analyst: Ruth Heffner ; 1954

Coverage Date: 1895-1927

Coverage Place: South africa

LCSH: Tsonga (African peoples)


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