Bohannan, Paul. A source book on Tiv religion in 5 volumes

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Volume I Cosmos, Soma, Psyche And Disease

Foreword

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1 Cosmos

Creation

Takuruku

Aôndo

World

Moon

Stars

The Sprites

Monstrous Births

Masked Dancers

The Dead

Raising (kende) Mku

Life After Death

Chapter 2 The Body

The Nurturance System

The Functions Of Different Types Of Food

Some Qualities Of Some Specific Plant Foods

Food Taboos

Belly (iyav)

Digestion

Obesity

Muscles And Other Igbira

Muscles.

Igbira

Snake Bite And Scorpion Stings

Internal Pains And Igbira

Blood

Blood Letting

Setting Broken Bones (dzor Kuhwe)

Perceptual Organs: Eyes

Eye Difficulties

Eye Medicine

Internal Organs

Lungs (huhu)

Gall Bladder (mlem)

Spleen (kwembe)

Kidney (ihi; Plural Ahi)

Heart (shima)

Reproductive System

Doctrine Of Procreation

Reproductive Organs - Male

Reproductive Organs - Female

Fecundity

Pregnancy

Barrenness

Childbirth Medicines

Lactation

Puberty And Fever

Chapter 3 The Psyche

Heart

Character (inja)

Luck Or Fate - Destiny

Jijingi - The Shade

Psychic Disturbances

Madness, In The Tiv View

Madness: Cases

Agina

Mnyam: Dreams And Portents

Dreams

Portents

Hunches

Chapter 4 Symptoms And Diseases

Hygiene And Charms

Being Ill In Tivland

Curing

Medicine

Attitudes Toward Medicine

Classification Of Medicines

Payment For Medicines

European Medicine, Hospitals, And Dispensaries

Convalescence

Diseases

“diseases” For Which Tiv Have Words

Diseases That Tiv Do Not Recognize

Symptoms

Coughs And Colds

Sores

Swellings

Cuts And Abrasions

Skin Rashes

Chills (karikase) [malaria]

Animal Bites And Pests

Speech Defects

Albinism

Congenital Cripples

Volume Ii Tsav

Chapter 5 Tsav: The Substance And Its Uses

The Physical Attributes Of Tsav

Tsav - Who Has It

Tsav - Where You Get It

“the Sisters’ Son And The Mbatsav” [a Text By Iyorkôsu].

Tsav - How It Feels

The Uses Of Tsav

Bewitching - Different Types

“killing”

“eating” The Dead

Chapter 6 The Mbatsay And Their Activities

Mbatsav As A Logical Necessity

Mbatsav As Bogey-men: Jokes

Mbatsav As Bogey-men: Fear

Mbatsav And Repairing Tar

Mbatsav And Magicians

Mbatsav As An Organization

Numbers And Relative Power

Signs Of The Mbatsav: Indiyer Drums

Mbatsav - Nocturnal Activities

Equipment Of The Mbatsav

Atsuku (drawing A)

Imbor

The Divining Apparatus (ishol) Of The Mbatsav

The Bende

The Iwen Ifee (drawing D)

Mbatsav: Their Use Of Akombo

Activities Of The Mbatsav

How The Mbatsav “go Out” (duwe)

The Mbatsav As Animals

The Flight To Swem

The Mbatsav As Agents Of Death

Removing Bodies

Mbatsav Use Of Human Body Parts

Chapter 7 Victims Of The Mbatsav

Who Bewitches Whom

The Kinship Bond

Deals Between Lineages

Victims Of The Mbatsav

Protection

Procedure

Cases

Flesh Debts

Collecting Debts

Flesh Debts And Tsar Market Place

Chapter 8 Anti-tsav

Kwamegh

Extra-processual Events

Swem And Sasswood

Swem

Sasswood

Volume Iii The Lesser Akombo

Chapter 9 The Lesser Akombo

Abumekombo

Ichimbiv

Akombo Dôôr

Igbe

Akombo Igbe. Symbols

Akombo Igbe - Cases

Ingbyanjov

Texts On The Ingbyanjôv

Ahina (twin)

The Case Of Tyowua.

Akombo Hindan

Akombo Twer

Ichigh

Texts About The Chigh.

Cases Of The Akombo Ichigh

Akombo Imande

Akombo Ihundugh

Ijoghol

Akombodam

Cases Of Akombodam. 1. Utishayem

Cases Of Akombodam. 2. Daga

Agashi - An Aspect Of The Akombodam

Akombo A Uke

Ikoor

Kpanda Awambe

Akombo Akporo

Kulu, The Indigo Workers’ Akombo

Kwan

Ambe

Imbwa

Megh

What The Megh Demands Of Practitioners

Akombo Msondo

Inya I Kungu

Swende

Kinds (ato) Of Swende

The Protective Emblems Of Swende, And How It Is Pierced

Removing Swende

The Place Of Swende In Relation To Other Matters

Swende - Kpwese Bua

Swende - Chiluete

Atsewe

Ityumyongo

Veekombo (or Verakombo)

Iwa

Iwa: Protective Emblems

Symptoms Of The Iwa

Seizing The Iwa.

Akombo Iwa - Medicines And Repairing

Uwar Akombo

Wayo

Protective Emblems Of The Wayo

Symptoms Of The Wayo

Cases Of Wayo

Kwambe

Iiyar

Volume Iv The Great Akombo And Akombo Ritual

Chapter 10 The Great Akombo

Akombo And Heritage

Some Great Akombo

Iwoyange

Ilyum

Tum Or Tyum

Mfe

Kasen Akombo, Talen Ku, Or Ityar

Biamegh

The Biamegh Ceremonies In Tongôv

The Second Day In Tôngov

Notes Taken After The Tôngov Biamegh

Kokoiwen’s Biamegh

Abayol’s Biamegh

Chapter 11 The Uses Of Akombo And Their Ritual

Washing Akombo

Actual Cases

General Information About Washing Akombo

Repairing Akombo

Actual Cases

Seizing Akombo

Seizing An Akombo To The Finish (beginning At The Base)

Brewing Akombo (akombo Mirin)

Seizing Akombo Chigh

Erecting Akombo For Protection

List Of Portective Emblems

Conditions In Which Akombo Are Used For Protection

When The Protection Fails To Work

Other Things An Akombo Undergoes

To Remove (dugh) Akombo

Remember (umbur) Akombo

To Gather Up (kura) Akombo

To Beat (gbwidye) Akombo

To Drag (kpwera) Akombo

Taking Oaths On Akombo Emblems (bum Akombo)

Invoking Akombo (sogh Akombo)

Volume V The Meaning Of Akombo And The Life Cycle

Chapter 12 The Principles Of Classification Of Akombo

Birth Akombo

Luck (ikôr) Akombo

Subsistence (yiagh) Akombo

Strength Akombo (akombo Agee)

Bridge (tsa) Akombo

Distinctions That Are Drawn In Classifying Akombo

Chapter 13 Akombo Components And Symbols

Emblems And Ideas

Sacrifice

Sacredness

Camwood

Akombo Regulations

Acts

Repairing Akombo

Buying Akombo

Cancelling Akombo (aven Akombo)

Chapter 14 The Social Aspects Of Akombo

Yar Akombo

Those Who Eat One Akombo

We And They

Akombo Repairman

Participation Of The Dead In Akombo Ceremonies

Payment For Akombo Ceremonies

Akokombo

Chapter 15 Divining

Divining Apparatus - Oracles

Sasswood As An Oracle

The Divining Chains And How To Use Them

The Rubbing Horn (jiagba)

Seers

Miscellaneous Oracles

Occasions For Consulting Diviners

Diviners

Initiation Of A Diviner

Materials Needed

Pounding The Medicine

Laying Out The Oracles To Be Consecrated

The Sacrifice

Penny, Penny, Who’s Got The Penny?

Waiting For The Sacrifice To Cook

Eating The Sacrifice

Divining Seances - Cases

1. Ende’s Age-set Consult The Oracles

2. Gu Consults The Oracle About His Daughter

3. Shitaa Divines For Abodzer

Chapter 16 Rituals Of The Life Cycle

Idyugh I Kwase

Ityumbun Wan

Senda Hwav

Cases Of Senda Hwav.

Funerals

Sudden Death By Tsav

Post Mortem Operations In Search Of Tsav

Funerals Of Great Men

Actual Funerals

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information

Author:

Title: A source book on Tiv religion in 5 volumes

Published By: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 1969. 5 v. (xv, 802 leaves): ill.

By line: Paul and Laura Bohannan

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 1998. Computer File

Culture: Tiv (FF57)

Subjects: Religious beliefs (770); Religious practices (780); Ecclesiastical organization (790);

Abstract: This compendium presents reworked field notes on a number of subjects related to Tiv religion, particularly on witchcraft. It is divided into five volumes, paginated consecutively. The first volume contains data on general religious beliefs, ethno-conceptions about both nature and man, sickness, nutrition and reproduction. The second volume concentrates on some of the key elements of Tiv religion, such as, TSAV (a substance which grows on the heart, inadequately translated as 'witchcraft potential'), MBATSAV (a society of those who have TSAV, or 'men of ability), and SWEM and SASSWOOD (sacred objects and means of controlling the actions of the MBATSAV). The third volume contains material on AKOMBO, a quite involved religious concept which in a very narrow sense means magical emblems and magical forces. The AKOMBO differs from the GREAT AKOMBO (the content of the fourth volume) in that it affects individuals while the GREAT AKOMBO is the matter of social groups with different sets of emblems and sacrifices. The principles of classification of AKOMBO and its components and symbols are framed in the fifth volume. The researcher may find reading pp. 629-630 helpful for understanding the AKOMBO concept. The last chapter contains data on rituals in the life cycle, particularly those grouping around childbirth and funerals.

Document Number: 30

Document ID: ff57-030

Document Type: Monograph

Language: English

Note: Category 754 has been used for TSAV and MBATSAV, and 695, 788 or 789 for SWEM and SASSWOOD. Categories 778 and 789 have been used as the basic categories for the AKOMBO, and categories 753, 754, 755, 761, 782, 788, and 796 have been used for various aspects of the same.

Field Date: 1949-1953

Evaluation: Ethnologists-5

Analyst: Dubravka Schmalzbauer ; Sigrid Khera ; 1971-1972

Coverage Date: not specified

Coverage Place: Benue State, Nigeria

LCSH: Tiv (African people)

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