Rivers, W. H. R. (William Halse Rivers), 1864-1922. The Todas

Table of Contents

Publication Information

The Todas

Chapter I Introduction

Methods

Chapter Ii The Toda People

The Village And The House

The Daily Life Of The Todas

Sketch Of Social Organisation

Chapter Iii Dairies And Buffaloes

The Dairy Organisation

The Dairy

The Toda Buffalo

Dairy Procedure

The Care Of The Ordinary Buffaloes

Chapter Iv The Village Dairy

The Tarvali

The Kudrpali

The Wursuli

The Daily Life Of The Wursol

The Kugvali Of Taradr

The Dairy Of Kanòdrs

The Teivali Dairy

Chapter V The Ti Dairy

The Contents Of The Poh

The Daily Life At The Ti

The Palol

The Kaltmokh

The Mòrol

New Dairy Vessels

The Five Ti

The Nòdrs Ti

The Kars Ti

The Pan Ti

The Kwòdrdoni Ti

The Nidrsi Ti

Chapter Vi Buffalo Migrations

Migrations Of The Village Buffaloes

Migration Of The Ti Buffaloes

Chapter Vii Ordination Ceremonies

The Palikartmokh

The Wursol

The Kugvalikartmokh Of Taradr And The Pohkartpol Of Kanòdrs

The Kaltmokh

The Ordination Of The Palol

The Tesherst Ceremony

The Niroditi Ceremony

Chapter Viii Special Dairy Ceremonies

The Pepkaricha Ceremony

The Irpalvusthi Ceremony

Giving Salt To Buffaloes

The Ponup Ceremony

Chapter Ix The Toda Gods

Pithi

Ön

Teikirzi

Teipakh, Or Tirshti

Anto.

Kulinkars

Nòtirzi

Korateu Or Kuzkarv

Puzi And Kurindo

Kwoten, Teikuteidi, And Elnâkhum

Kwoto Or Meilitars

Other Gods

Chapter X Prayer

The Village Prayer

Prayer Of Kuudr

Prayer Of Kiudr

Prayer Of Kwirg

The Prayer Of The Kanòdrs Dairy

The Ti Prayer

The Anto Prayer

The Prayer Of Makars

Chapter Xi The Dairy Ritual

Comparison Of The Procedure Of Different Dairies

The Sanctity Of Milk

Special Dairy Customs

Purity And Impurity

Women And The Dairy

History Of The Dairy

Chapter Xii Divination And Magic

Divination

Sorcery

The Evil Eye

Various Magical Remedies

Omens

Chapter Xiii Sacrifice And Offerings

The Erkumptthpimi Ceremony

The Sacrifice At The Ti

The Erkumptthpimi Prayer Of Kuudr

The Kars Prayer

The Teutütusthchi Ceremony

Offerings

Irnörtiti To The Ti

Irnörtiti, Tuninörtiti And Pilinörtiti

The Irnörtiti Ceremony

Tuninörtiti

Pilinörtiti

Chapter Xiv Birth And Childhood Ceremonies

The Pursütpimi Ceremony

Childbirth

Seclusion After Childbirth

Uncovering The Child's Face

Naming The Child

The Tersamptpimi Ceremony

The Ear-piercing Ceremony

Chapter Xv Funeral Ceremonies

The Puzhutpimi Ceremony

The Tiveri Tûr Ceremony

The Slaughter Of The Buffaloes.

The Cloth-giving Ceremony

The Cremation

Some Special Funeral Ceremonies

The Interval Between The Two Funerals

Chapter Xvi Funeral Ceremonies— Continued

The Marvainolkedr

The Koòtiti Ceremony

The Azaramkedr

Funeral Laments

Purification Ceremonies

The Funerals Of Children

Funeral Contributions

Amnòdr

Origin Of Funeral Customs

Chapter Xvii Sacred Days And Numbers

The Madnol And Palinol

The Arpatznol.

Sacred Numbers

Chapter Xviii Sacred Places And Objects

Hills And Other Places.

Rivers

Villages

The Dairy

The Threshold

Bells

Relics

The Buffalo And Its Milk

Other Animals

Trees And Plants

The Sun, Light, And Fire

Stones

Chapter Xix The Toda Religion

The Gods

Influence Of Other Religious Systems

Magic And Religion

Chapter Xx Genealogies And Population

The Value Of The Genealogical Record

The Trustworthiness Of The Genealogies

Buffalo Pedigrees

The Toda Population

Proportion Of The Sexes

Twins

The Determination Of Age

Chapter Xxi Kinship

Kinship Taboos

Kinship Salutations

The Duties Of Kin

Chapter Xxii Marriage

The Regulation Of Marriage

Kinship And Marriage

The Marriage Of Matchuni

Polyandry

Polygyny

Exchange Of Brother And Sister

The Custom Of ‘terersthi’

Divorce

The Mokhthoditi Institution

Sexual Morality

The History Of Pinpurz Kutan

Chapter Xxiii Social Organisation

The Clan

The Kudr

The Pòlm

Laws Of Descent

Adoption

Government

Crime

Suicide

The Monegar

Headmen

Property

Debt And Servitude

The Position Of Women

Chapter Xxiv Arts And Amusements

Clothing

Methods Of Wearing The Hair

Skin-marks

Ornaments

Food

Fire-making

The House

Implements And Utensils

The Pounder, Sieve, And Broom

Weapons

Measures And Numerals

Money

The Calendar

The Week

Astronomical Ideas

The Sun

The Moon

Planets

Constellations And Stars

Games

Riddles

Poetry And Music

Chapter Xxv Language

Phonetics

Sacred Language

Secret Language

Chapter Xxvi Personal Names

Change Of Name

Taboos On Names

Chapter Xxvii Relations With Other Tribes

Todas And Badagas

Todas And Kotas

Todas And Kurumbas

Todas And Irulas

Chapter Xxviii The Clans Of The Todas

The Tarthar Clans

Nòdrs

Kars

Pan

Taradr

Keradr

Kanòdrs

Kwòdrdoni

Päm

Nidrsi

Melgars

Kidmad And Karsh

The Teivali Clans

Kuudr

Piedr

Kusharf

Keadr

Pedrkars

Kulhem

Chapter Xxix Teivaliol And Tartharol

Chapter Xxx The Origin And History Of The Todas

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information

Author:

Title: The Todas

Published By: London ; New York: Macmillan, 1906. 18, 755 p. [incomplete]: ill., map

By line: William Halse Rivers

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 2010. Computer File

Culture: Toda (AW60)

Subjects: Pastoral activities (233); Dairying (234); Comparative evidence (171); Sacred objects and places (778); General character of religion (771); Priesthood (793); Ritual (788); Etiquette (576); Mythology (773); Cultural participation (184); Sociocultural trends (178); Community structure (621); Kinship terminology (601);

Abstract: This standard ethnological study of the Todas is based on the authors field work among them in 1901-02. Rivers primary emphasis has been placed on the religion and sociology of the people; their personalities and physical characteristics have been the subject of studies published by the author and others elsewhere. Full details are provided in this work on the complex social, economic, ritualistic and ceremonial aspects of the dairy organization. The importance of ritual in the dairy structure provides the basis for Rivers theory that the Todas are a people who possess a religion in process of degeneration --that their religious orientation has been transferred from the formerly highly developed idea of 'god' of 'gods' to a series of almost entirely ritualistic practices and mechanical formulae applied predominantly to the dairy animals, dairymen-priests, buildings, vessels and sacred bells. Among other distinctive features of Toda culture the author lists Toda relationships with neighboring tribes of the Nilgiri hills, polyandry, and female infanticide. The division of Toda society into moieties and the resultant cultural distinctions between the two groups, the organization of the clan communities, and the elaborate funeral customs, are also discussed in detail.

Document Number: 1

Document ID: aw60-001

Document Type: Component part(s), monograph

Language: English

Note: Omitted from the collection pages 749-755). Page numbers [749] to [788] have been assigned to the unpaginated genealogical charts. The glossary on pp. 741-748, indexed for the subject GLOSSARY (104), should be consulted for definitions of native words used extensively in the text. The genealogical charts frequently are indexed for the subject KINSHIP TERMINOLOGY (601).

Field Date: 1901-1902

Evaluation: Ethnologist-5

Analyst: Mary L. Bartlett; 1954

Coverage Date: 1602-1902

Coverage Place: India

LCSH: Toda (Indic people)

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