Hockings, Paul. Ancient Hindu refugees: Badaga social history 1550-1975

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Introduction

The Terrain

The Nilgiri Population

Notes

1 The Migration From Mysore

Dating The Migration

Published Estimates

Linguistic Evidence

Other Historical Evidence

Wodeas

Kongaru

Ha:ruvas

Adikiris

Ka□akkas

Kaggusis

Gaudas

Wainad Gaudas

Badagas Of Ha:sanu:ru

Toreas

Be:das, Kumba:ras And Hill Forts

Male Ko:□e

Hatra Ko:□e

Notes

2 Place-names And Cultural Ecology

A New System Of Therapy

Village Names

1. Names From A Topographic Feature Or The Sky

2. References To Land Or Quality Of The Soil

3. Nature Of Vegetation (and Jungle Produce)

4. Plant Species

5. References To Local Animals

6. References To Buffalo Herding

7. Names Showing Relation To Other Villages

8. References To A Cultural Feature

9. Fortifications

10. References To Badaga Men And Women Or Clans

11. References To Toda Men Or Former Toda Sites

12. Reference To A Kota Man

13. References To Former Kurumba Hamlets

14. Reference To An Irula Or Kasuva Site

Selection Of An Ecological Zone

Notes

3 Social Groupings

The Joint Patrilocal Family

Lineage

Clan

Phratry

Moieties

Septs

Jati, Marriage Preference And Role Ambiguity

Wodeas

Ko˙ngaru

Ha:ruvas

Adikiris

Ka□akkas

Kaggusis

Gaudas

Kumba:ras

Be:das

Toreas

Ha:sanu:ru Badagas

Notes

4 Traditional Interchange (1)

The Interdependence Of The Plateau Communities

Badagas And Kotas

Kota Products And Services

Badaga Products

Irregular Services

Badaga Rituals

Kota Ceremonies

Notes

5 Traditional Interchange (2)

Badagas And Todas

Badaga Products

Toda Services And Products

Irregular Transactions

Ritual Interaction

Badagas And Kurumbas

The Control Of Sorcery

Exchange Of Goods And Services

Badagas And Irulas

Badagas And Kasuvas

Badagas And Uralis

The Wainad Gaudas And Their Neighbours

Traditional Interchange: A Summary

Notes

6 Early Patterns Of Trade

Original State Of The Economy

Marketing Before 1825

Marketing After 1825

Itinerant Traders On The Plateau

Notes

7 Growth Of The Cash Economy

Impact Of British Ideas On The Badaga Economy (1799–1850)

Expansion Of The Market Economy (1850–1900)

Agricultural Change Over The Past Century

Modern Systems Of Marketing

Modern Employment

Notes

8 Administration And Law

Customary Law

Headmen And Administrative Boundaries

Procedure

Crime And Punishment

Local Administration

The Present Ambilegal Situation

Political Choice

Modern Laws

Notes

9 A Period Of Stress

Factors Leading To Stress

Land Legislation

Missionary Activity

Natural Calamities

Reactions Of The Badagas To Evangelization

Attempts To Syncretize Christianity And Hinduism

Hindu Reformers

The Destruction Of The Temples

Sanctions Against Conversion

Personal Disorientation

Massacring Of Kurumbas

Factionalism

The Cult Of Irabattaraya

Conclusion

Accommodation Of The Christian Community

Major Factions Became Permanent

Health Improvements And Economic Growth

Notes

10 Religious And Social Change In The Twentieth Century

Bajan And Krishna Worship

Tamilian And Kanarese Celebrations

Growth Of Lingayat Ties With Mysore

Changing Patterns Of Marriage And Residence

The New Factions

The Christian Community

New Patterns Of Communication

Transportation

The Impact Of Towns

Film-going Habits

Radio

Newspapers

Networks Of Communication

Intra-village Networks

Inter-village Networks

Inter-tribal Networks

Village-and-town Networks

The Position Of Badagas In Nilgiri Society

Changing Social Structure

Notes

11 Summary And Conclusion

Some Conclusions On Modernization

Notes

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information

Author:

Title: Ancient Hindu refugees: Badaga social history 1550-1975

Published By: The Hague ; New York: Mouton, 1980. 14, 285 p.: ill., maps

By line: Paul Hockings

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 2005. Computer File

Culture: Badaga (AW50)

Subjects: HISTORY (175); COMMUNITY HEADS (622); PLACE NAMES (103); SETTLEMENT PATTERNS (361); SIBS (614); PHRATRIES (615); ACCULTURATION AND CULTURE CONTACT (177); SOCIOCULTURAL TRENDS (178); INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (648); MEDIUM OF EXCHANGE (436); FOREIGN TRADE (439); MISSIONS (797); INGROUP ANTAGONISMS (578); GENERAL CHARACTER OF RELIGION (771); SPIRITS AND GODS (776);

Abstract: This source on Badaga social history between 1550 and 1975 is one of the primary sources in the Badaga file. The topics discussed by the author include clan and phratry legends of the Badaga migration from Mysore to the Nilgiri Plateau, place names and cultural ecology, social organization, the interdependence of Badaga communities with non-Badaga communities on the Nilgiri Plateau, economic history, political organization and law, the impact of culture contact, acculturation, and missionization, and religious and social change in the 20th century.

Document Number: 2

Document ID: aw50-002

Document Type: Monograph

Language: English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 253-261) and indexes

Field Date: 1962-1977

Evaluation: Ethnologist-4,5

Analyst: Gerald Reid ; 1989

Coverage Date: 1550-1975

Coverage Place: Nilgiri Hills, Tamil Nadu State, India

LCSH: Badaga (Indic people)

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