Mukherjea, Charulal. The Santals

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Chapter 1 Santal Genesis And Migration

Theories Of Pre-dravidian Immigration

Santal Genesis And Exodus 1

Historical Basis Of Santal Migration In The Santal Parganas 3

In Other Places

Conclusion

Chapter Ii Habitat And Population

Their Language

Social Environment

Population

Bihar And Orissa

Feudatory States

Bengal

Chapter Iii Economic Life

Santal Cottages

Fire

Food

Drink

Furniture And Other House-hold Articles

Industries

Dress

Ornaments

Weapons

Musical Instruments

The Economic Background Of Santal Life

Conclusion

Chapter Iv Social Fabric

Division Of Labour

Tribal Division

Kharwars

Gòndwars

Clan Exogamy And Totcmism

Clans And Sub-clans

1. Hansdak’

2. Murmu

3. Kisku

4. Hèmbròm

5. Màr[unknown]n[unknown]di

6. Sòrèn

7. [unknown]tu[unknown]du

8. Baske

9. Besra

10. Pànnria

11. Còn[unknown]rèn

12. Gòndwar

Clan Santak (signs)

Conclusion

Untitled Section: ...

Chapter V Kinship Organisation

Jàtià Pe[unknown]ra And Bòndbu Pe[unknown]ra

Relationship Terms

Rights And Duties Of Certain Relations

Prohibited Degrees Of Marriage

Relationship Taboos

Relations Who Can Joke With One Another

Relationship By Courtesy

Chapter Vi Tribal Polity

The Limbs Of Law

Village-assembly And Its Powers And Functions

Desh-pròdhan And His Inter Village Council

Supreme Court Of The Santals

Supreme Council At Mòkòrbasi

Social Taboos: Punishment For Their Breaches

“bi[unknown]tlahà” In The Santal Parganas 1

At Mayurbhanj

Restoration To The Tribal Fold

Conclusion

Santal Customary Law

Santal Customary Law At Mayurbhanj

Adoption (pushapo)

Ghar-jamai

Partition

Legal Status Of Santal Women

Legal Status Of Santal Women In The Santal Parganas

Conclusion

Chapter Vii From Birth To Death

Birth

Narta (name-giving Ceremony)

Caco-chatiar

Cicatrization (sika)

Tatto Marks On Women (or Kboda)

Conclusion

Marriage

1. Orthodox Marriage

Selection Of Bride

Omen Reading

Betrothal (takacal)

Rates Of Bride-price (gònò[unknown]n)

Preparation For Wedding

Seta Bapla, Daiban Bapla And Matkòm Bapla

Procedure

Question

Bridegroom’s Return Home

Idi Aguruaal 1 (bride’s Return To Her Father’s Home)

2. Bàriàt Ate Bapla

3. Tu[unknown]nki Dipli

Ii. Love Marriage

Iii. Sanga (widow Marriage)

Iv Minor Marriages

Conclusion

Funeral Ceremonies

Telnahan Or Chotokaman (preliminary Purification)

Jiling Dahar (going To The River Damodar With The Bones)

Bhandan Or Final Purification

Ideas Of Heaven And Hell

Conclusion

Chapter Viii The Cycle Of Santal Festivals

Eròk’ Sim (june)

Hàrià[unknown]r Simko (july) 1

I[unknown]ri Gundli Nànwàni (the Millet Festival—august)

Gamah Purnima (august)

Karam Pòròb (september-october)

Jantha[unknown]r (november)

Sobrae, The Winter Harvest Home

Sobrae At Mayurbhanj

Mòkòr (sakrat 1 Mid-january.)

Magh Sim 1 (january-february)

Baba, The Santal ‘sal’-blossom Festival. 3

Jòm Sim.

Pata (santal Còròk In Mid-april).

Conclusion

Chapter Ix Religion Of The Santals

Santal Deities And Spirits

Supreme Deity (thàkur Jiu, Siñ Bo[unknown]nga Or Dhòròm)

Village Spirits

Hill Spirits

Basuki Or Basumata

Ancestor Spirits

Mischievous Spirits

Household Deity (o[unknown]rak’ Bo[unknown]nga) And Secret God (abge Bo[unknown]nga)

Selection Of Village Priest

Religion Of The Santals

Chapter X Magic And Witch-craft

To Remove Drought

To Remove Village Illness

Belief In Evil Eye

Luck

Origin Of Witch-craft

How Do The Witches Exercise Their Spell

A Witch Tradition

How Wicth-craft Began Among Santals

Different Grades Of Witches 1

Is Witch-craft Inborn?

Ojha (witch-doctor)

Conclusion

Chapter Xi Santal Folk-lore

1. The Woman And Doma

2. A Ghost Who Sought A Bride

3. A Man And His Second Wife

4. The Woman And Her Promise

5. A Lad And His Animal Friends

6. The Strange Medicine

7. A Jackal Who Was Too Clever

8. Jackal Outwitted

9. A Witch Story

10. Fate

11. Gumda’s Might

A General View Of Santal Folk-tales *

Animal Stories

Tales Of Bongas

Witch-craft Stories

Fondness For Verbal Quibbles And Metaphors

Santal Folk-poetry

Religious And Semi-religious Songs

Marriage Songs

Songs Of Love

Love Of Flowers And Birds

Songs Of Birds

Other Songs

Santal Dances

Lag[unknown]ren Ènèc’

Dò[unknown]n Ènèc’

Jhikà Ènèc’

Jàtur Ènèc’

Riñja Ènèc’

[unknown]da[unknown]n[unknown]ta Ènèc’

[unknown]dahar Ènèc’

Baha Ènèc’

Chapter Xii The Santals In A Changing Civilisation

The Santal Character

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information

Author:

Title: The Santals

Published By: Calcutta: A. Mukherjee & Co., Private Ltd., 1962. xvi, 459 p., plates: ill.

By line: By Charulal Mukherjea

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 1998. Computer File

Culture: Santal (AW42)

Subjects:

Abstract: This volume presents a general synthesis of Santal culture and society based upon the literature and the author's own field work in Mayurbhanj and Santal Parganas. Attention is paid throughout to regional differences in the culture. Because of the approach, no single subject is treated in depth; however, the treatment is good and the data seem reliable.

Document Number: 3

Document ID: aw42-003

Document Type: Monograph

Language: English

Note: Includes index A glossary of the Santali terms most used in the book has been prepared and may be found in Category 104

Field Date: ca. 1933-1939

Evaluation: Lawyer, educator-4,5

Analyst: Sigrid Khera ; 1969-1970

Coverage Date: not specified

Coverage Place: India

LCSH: Santal (South Asian people)

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