Maiskii, I. M. (Ivan Mikhailovich), 1884-1975. Contemporary Mongolia

Table of Contents

Publication Information

The Country

Geographical Location And Boundaries

Size And Area.

Surface

The Soil

Irrigation

Climate

Flora

Fauna

Summary

Population

General Size Of The Population

Previous Data

The Cenus Of 1918

Size Of The Population

Density Of The Population

The Mongols

1. Tribal Subdivisons

Three Branches Of Mongol Nationality

The Khalkhas

The Dürbets

Small Tribes

The Tribes In Numerical Relation

Distribution By Territory

Distribution In Khoshuns

Average Size Of Khoshun

Size Of Ecclesiastical Principalities

Variation In The Density Of The Population

Breakdown By Sex

4. Breakdown By Age

5. Size Of Family And Number Of Households

6. Division Into Classes

Princes

Nobles

Free Citizens

Serfs

The Clergy

Numerical Correlation Of Classes

7. Physical Aspects Of The Mongol

Outside Outward Appearance

Health

Diseases

8. Spiritual Characteristics Of The Mongol

A Passive Temperament

Laziness And Inactivity

Time Is Not Money

Dirt And Filth

Ignorance And Superstition

Powers Of Observation And Curiosity

Geniality And Hospitality

Relationships Between Sexes

Prostitution

Honesty And Peaceful Disposition

Mode Of Living

Clothing

Food

Living Quarters

Marriage

Family

Bringing Up Of The Children

Death And Burial

Are The Mongols Dying Out?

Established Opinions

Criticism Of Established Opinions

The Number Of Mongols In The Xii–xiv Centuries

Stationary State Of The Population Of Central Asia

First-hand Impressions

The Chinese

General Characteristics

Historical Data

Sex And Age

Occupations

Distribution In The Country

Maimatchen

The Chinese Cemetery

Organization And Institutions

The Chinese Theatre

The Chinese And The Mongols

Weakness Of Chinese Influence In Autonomous Mongolia

Causes Of Weakness Of Chinese Influence

Attitude Of The Mongols Toward The Chinese

The Russians

1. Historical Data

Two Roots Of Russian Colonization.

2. General Characteristics Of The Russian Emigration

The Trading Element

Other Elements

Buryats

Institutions And Organizations

The Russians And The Mongols

Russian Influence In Autonomous Mongolia

The Mongol Attitude Toward The Russians

The City And The Steppe

The Population Of The City And That Of The Steppe

Monastery Cities

Urga

Other Monastery Cities

Uliassutai And Kobdo

Correlation Between City And Steppe Populations

Summary

National Economy

Untitled Section: ...

1. Species Of Livestock

Five Species Of Livestock

Horses

Horned Cattle

Camels

Sheep

Goats

2. System Of Economy

Primitive Type Animal Husbandry

Communal Land Ownership

Grazing Lands

A Nomad Existence

The Weak Points In Mongolian Livestock-breeding

3. Quantity Of Livestock

Previous Calculations

Census Of 1918.

Horses

Camels

Horned Cattle

Sheep And Goats

Summary Of Results

Live Stock Breakdown By Types

Autonomous Mongolia — A Country Of Small Stock-breeding Economy

Economies Of The Princes And The Church

Distribution Of Livestock Through The Country

4. Is The Quantity Of Live Stock Increasing In Autonomous Mongolia

The Difficulty Of Answering This Question

Opinions Of Well-informed Persons

Approximate Calculations

Insignificance Of The Increase

Disposal Of Liquid Capital

Saturation Of Autonomous Mongolia With Livestock

5. Products Of Livestock Industry

Milk

Argal

Hunting And Fishing

Hunting

Fishing

Budget Of The Mongolian Family

The Significance Of The Budget

The Average Typical Family

The Structure Of The Budget Of Expenses

Characteristics Of Diet

Home-made Products And Commercial Products

Worth Of The Typical Average Unit Of The Economy

Transportation

Characteristics Of Mongolian Roads

Hardships Encountered On The Mongolian Roads

Means Of Communication.

Main Roads.

Urton Duty.

Prices Of Freight In Mongolia.

Incipient Europeanization Of Transportation.

Currency

Sheep And Tea

Silver

Paper Money.

Competition Between Russian And Chinese Currencies.

The Present State Of Currency In Autonomous Mongolia.

Trade

1. Autonomous Mongolia As A Market.

Capacity Of The Market.

Main Items Of Merchandise.

The Role Of Credit.

Trading Centers And Districts.

2. The Chinese Trade.

Past History Of The Chinese Trade In Mongolia.

Large And Small Firms.

Character Of Operations.

The Mechanics Of Trade.

Cheating.

Strong And Weak Sides Of The Chinese Trade.

3. Russian Private Trade.

History Of Russian Trade With Autonomous Mongolia.

Character Of Russian Trade.

The Mongolian National Bank.

4. The Mongolian Expedition

Origin, Organization, And Activities.

Reasons For The Liquidation Of The Expedition.

5. Cooperatives.

Industry

Industrial Occupations Of The Mongols

Chinese Industry

Mineral Resources Of Autonomous Mongolia.

Agriculture

Farming Regions

Chinese Agriculture

Mongolian Agriculture

Agricultural Prospects In Autonomous Mongolia.

National Wealth, National Income And Expenditures.

Economic Potentialities Of Autonomous Mongolia

Present Economic Situation

Economic Future Of Autonomous Mongolia

Agriculture

Industry

Livestock Breeding

Summary

Untitled Section: ...

The Political History Of Autonomous Mongolia.

The Rise And Decline Of The Mongols

Subjugation By China.

Chinese Policy

The Amursana Rebellion.

Weakening Of The Princely State.

Subjugation Of The Church.

Dynamic Forces In Mongolian History.

Monuments Of The Past In Autonomous Mongolia

Mongolia, — A Historical Graveyard.

Kereksurs.

Sarcophagi

An Ancient Fortress.

Ulan-balgasun.

Karakorum

The Period Of Autonomous Northern Mongolia (1911–1919).

Russian Policy.

The Revolution In Eastern Mongolia.

The Revolution In Western Mongolia.

Ja-lama.

The Siege And Capture Of Kobdo.

Ja-lama's Further Career.

Formalization Of Autonomous Mongolia's International Political Status.

The Uriankhai Question

The Pan-mongolian Movement.

A Glance Into The Future.

State Administration. *

1. Khoshun.

What Is A Khoshun?

Khoshun Administration.

Functions Of Khoshun Administration.

Bak And Sumun.

Shabi.

Mingats.

2. Aimak

What Is An Aimak?

The Administration And Functions Of The Aimak.

Deputy Administrators.

3. The Central Government.

Bogdo-gegen.

The Ministries.

The Ecclesiastical Department.

Representative Organs.

Political Groupings.

State Finances

Russian Loans To Autonomous Mongolia.

The Russian Adviser To The Mongolian Government.

The Budget Of The Central Government.

Alba

Indebtedness Of Khoshun Administrations.

Laws

General Character Of Mongolian Law.

Legal Procedures.

Court Procedures.

Penalties.

Penal Norms.

Laws Concerning Domestic Relations.

The Law Of Inheritance.

Law Of Contracts.

Summary

Untitled Section: ...

Characteristics Of Mongolia's Religion.

Mongolia In Its Theological Phase Of Development.

Religious Beliefs In The Chinggis-khan Epoch.

Conversion To Buddhism.

Pure Buddhism.

Lamaism.

The Religious Life Of Autonomous Mongolia

The Head Of The Church.

Monasteries And Temples.

Religious Services And Festivities.

Economy Of The Church.

The Lamas

The Career Of A Lama.

The Intellectual And Moral Countenance Of The Lamas.

The Individualistic Order Of The Monasteries.

The Role Of The Lama In Mongolian Life.

Astronomy And Medicine.

The Origin Of The World.

The Earth.

The Sun, Moon And Stars.

Measuring Time.

Structure Of The Human Body.

The Origin Of Sickness And Their Diagnosis.

Methods Of Cure.

European Influences.

Types Of Mongolian Monks

1. The Little Gegen And His Teacher.

2. Dzain Gegen.

A Travelling Lama. *

Conclusion

A Look At The Future Of Mongolia.

Two Possible Roads For Mongolia

Russia And Autonomous Mongolia

Postscript

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information

Author:

Title: Contemporary Mongolia

Published By: Irkutsk: Gosudarstvennoe Izdatel'stvo, Irkutskoe Otdelenie, 1921. HRAF ms.: x, 782 p. [original: 332 p.]: ill., maps

By line: [by] I. Maiskii

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 2006. Computer File

Culture: Mongolia (AH01)

Subjects: Culture summary (105); History (175); Pastoral activities (233); Production and supply (433); External trade (439); Territorial organization (630); Legal norms (671); Offenses and sanctions (680); Government institutions (640); Ecclesiastical organization (790);

Abstract: This report of the findings of the Russian Expedition to Mongolia in 1919-20 is the best source available for Mongolia and the Khalkha Mongols during the early years of the Mongolian Republic. The material is very exact, detailed and almost universal in its coverage. Of particular importance are the chapters on population, the socio-politcal structure, foreign minorities (Russian and Chinese) in Mongolia, economic life, and foreign trade in Mongolia. Throughout the report, Maiskii always informs the reader how he arrived at his conclusions, about his field methods and the documentary sources that he utilized.

Document Number: 14

Document ID: ah01-014

Document Type: Component part(s), monograph

Language: English translation from Russian

Note: Translation of: [Sovremennaia Mongoliia]. The original Russian text is not included Translated from the Russian for Human Relations Area Files by Mrs. Dayton and J. Kunitz in 1956. 128 pages of statistical tables have not been translated.

Field Date: 1919-1920

Evaluation: Social Scientist-4,5

Analyst: Robert J. Theodoratus ; 1962

Coverage Date: 1911-1920

Coverage Place: Mongolia

LCSH: Mongols--Ethnology

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