Pitts, F. R.. Post-war Okinawa

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Chapter I: Geography


Arable Land


Population Density


Home Industries And Famous Products

Chapter Ii: Language



Okinawan Dialects






Chapter Iii: Agricultural History, Land Use And Diet

1. Agricultural History

The Early Days

Chronology Of Change In Crops

Chronology Of Changes In Farming Technique

Chronology Of Change In Livestock

2. Land Use

Yields Per Acre

Use Of Grass, Trees And Brush


Land Ownership And Rental

3. Diet

Ordinary Food

Feast Foods

Famine Food And Wartime Substitutes

Uses Of Sugar In The Home

Chapter Iv: Rural Economy

1. Agricultural Buying, Selling And Labor

Sale Of Farm Products And Livestock

Buying Of Livestock And Daily Necessities

Sale Of Services

Buying Of Labor And Services

Exchange Of Services

2. Rural Industries

Sugar Presses And Mills

Kanegusuku Rice Mill

Mat-making In Kanegusuku

Prewar Home Industry In Yamada

Postwar Home Industry In Yamada

3. Rural Finance

Mutual Loan Groups


‘son’ Relief

Rentals Of Village-owned Land


Payments To Officials


Local Philanthropy

Prizes At Contests

Sale Of Children

Chapter V: Family Life

1. Kinship Organization

The Household And The Family

The Structure Of Kinship Relations

Classification Of Kin

Maintaining Continuity: House Names

The Larger Kin Group: Structure And Variation.

2. The Life Cycle

The Calendar

Birth And Infancy: Notions About Conception



Childhood: Adult Attitudes


Marriage: Preliminaries

Maturity And Old Age: Associations


3. Prospect Of Change


Chapter Vi: Political Organization And Control

1. Territorial Organization

2. Political Organization 1

‘son’ Government

Village (‘ku’) Government Political Organization

3. Police

4. Political Participation By Women

5. The Political Community

6. Political Leadership And Authority

7. Social Control

8. Local Autonomy

Chapter Vii: Population

1. Postwar Growth And Change In Okinawa's Population


People And The Arable Land

Population Increase From 1940 To 1950

Population Increase During 1951 And 1952

The Sex Ratio

2. Population Characteristics Of A Rural ‘son’

Types Of Household Heads

Fertility, The Birth Rate, And Birth Control

Spacing Of Births

Postwar Marriage: Attitudes

“common Law Children”: Definitions

Illegitimate Children

Postwar Divorces

Case 1

Case 2

Case 3

3. A Note On The Accuracy Of Population Statistics In Okinawa

Census Figures

The Museki People

Ad Hoc Counts

‘koseki’ Changes

‘koseki’ Inaccuracies

Accuracy Of Kochinda-son Data

The New ‘koseki’

Usefulness In Research

Chafter Viii Land Tenure

1. The Okinawan Kingdom And The Land Allotment System (‘jiwari Seido’ )

2. Okinawa-ken (1879–1945). Japanese Administration And The Termination Of The Land Allotment System

3. World War Ii And The American Occupation

4. A Comparison Of Land Tenure In Two Rural Villages: Kanegusuku And Kitazato




Chapter Ix: Health

1. The Human Body: Practices And Attitudes

Eating And Drinking

Rest And Sleep



Body Ornamentation



2. Sanitation

3. The Supernatural And Disease

Concepts Of The Supernatural

Causes Of Disease

4. Medical Practice

Home Remedies

The Yuta

The Sanjinsoo

Other Diviners

The Yabuu

Short-cut Systems

Modern Medicine

5. Prospect Of Change


Chapter X: Education

1. Respect For Education

2. The Role Of The Teacher

3. Classroom Atmosphere

4. Present Problems

Chapter Xi: Culture Change In Rural Okinawa

The Japanese Impact (1879–1945)

Impact Of World War Ii And The American Occupation

Aspects Of Change In Rural Okinawa: Transportation


Chapter Xii: Okinawan-american Relations

1. The Rural Setting: Yamada

Changes In Structure And Orientation

Formal Relations

Informal Relations


2. Military Employment


Jagaru And Tobaru

Henza Shima


Okinawan Attitudes Toward Those Engaged In Military Employment

Okinawan Attitudes Toward Their American Employers

American Attitudes Toward Okinawan Employees


3. Japan, America, And Okinawa

Japan In Retrospect

Attitudes Toward The United States

Attitudes Toward American Negroes

Attitudes Toward Other Peoples

The Status Of Okinawa

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information


Title: Post-war Okinawa

Published By: Washington D.C.: National Research Council, Pacific Science Board, 1955. 8, 232 p.: ill., maps

By line: [by] F.R. Pitts, William P. Lebra, and Wayne P. Suttles

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 2000. Computer File

Culture: Okinawans (AC07)

Subjects: Acculturation and culture contact (177); Sociocultural trends (178); Tillage (241); Diet (262); Land use (311); Internal trade (438); Labor supply and employment (464); Arranging a marriage (584); Nuptials (585); Household (592); Family relationships (593); Kin relationships (602); Community structure (621); Towns (632); Form and rules of government (642); External relations (648); Aftermath of combat (727); Pregnancy (843); Childbirth (844); Status of children (858); Techniques of socialization (861); Education system (871);

Abstract: This is a post-World War II description of Okinawan culture. It was prepared by two ethnologists and a geographer under the auspices of the Pacific Science Board of the National Academy of Science. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of the American military occupation on Okinawan culture. In order to document that impact, pre- and post-war culture patterns were compared. The authors discuss social organization, political organization, religion, economic activities, diet, land use and tenure, population trends and health, and sanitary habits. In addition, they evaluate Okinawan-American relations and provide recommendations for improving relations and for stabilizing the Okinawan economy. The study was based on nine months of field research.

Document Number: 3

Document ID: ac07-003

Document Type: Monograph

Language: English

Field Date: 1953-1954

Evaluation: Ethnologists, Geographer-5

Analyst: Helen Gunsher Bornstein ; 1975

Coverage Date: 1940s -1954

Coverage Place: Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, Japan

LCSH: Okinawa


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