Anderson, Myrdene. Saami ethnoecology: resource management in Norwegian Lapland

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Untitled Section: ...

1. Introduction

1.1. Problem

1.2. Background And Logistics

1.3. Methodological Note

1.4. Organization And Conventions

Vignette Varieties Of Mobility

2. Primary Social Units

2.0. General

2.1. Ethnic Parameters

2.2. Extracultural Orientation: Saami Versus Non-saami, Sábmi And Dá[unknown] Z[unknown] Za

2.2.1. Language

2.2.2. Dress

2.2.3. Status

2.3. Intracultural Identification: Saami Vis-a-vis Saami, Sábmela[unknown] S And Dálula[unknown] S

2.3.1. Dialect

2.3.2. Costume

2.3.3. Occupation

2.4. Noncorporate Soclal Integrals

2.4.1. The Individual

2.4.1.1. Inculcation Of Conformity And Variability

2.4.1.2. Naming Systems And Attitudes Toward Names

2.4.1.2.1. Official Names

2.4.1.2.2. Nicknames

2.4.1.2.3. Lineal Derivational Prefixes

2.4.1.3. Ownership And Control Of Property

2.4.1.3.1. Private And Public Domains

2.4.1.3.2. Ownership Brands

2.4.1.3.3. Reindeer Earmarks

2.4.2. The Family

2.4.2.1. Composition Of And Terminology In The Nuclear Family

2.4.2.2. The Conjugal Pair

2.4.2.3. Division Of Labor

2.4.3. The Household

2.4.4. Extended Family And Other Kin

2.4.4.1. Consanguineal Kin And Kin Related Through Consanguines

2.4.4.2. In-laws And Other Affinal Kin

2.4.4.3. Fictive Kin

2.4.5. Kinship Terminology In Retrospect

2.4.6. The Sii'da

2.5. Social And Historic Factors Bearing On Ethnoecology

Vignette 3 The Fate Of Points In Time

3. Time, Its Structure And Tempo

3.0 General

3.1. The Life Cycle

3.1.1. Childhood And Child-raising

3.1.1.1. Conditions Of Conception

3.1.1.1.1. Sex, Sect, And Alcohol

3.1.1.1.2. Abortion

4.1.1.1.3. Acknowledging Pregnancy

3.1.1.2. Prenatal Experience And Pregnancy

3.1.1.3. The First Dependent Years

3.1.1.3.1. Orientation With Significant Others

3.1.1.3.2. Orientation With Self

3.1.1.3.2.1. Eating And Drinking

3.1.1.3.2.2. Sleeping

3.1.1.3.2.3. Sensual And Physical Experience

3.1.1.4. Preschool Years

3.1.1.4.1. Play And Work

3.1.1.4.2. Contexts Of Learning And Teaching

3.1.1.5. School Years

3.1.2. Adulthood

3.1.2.1. Active Adult Life

3.1.2.1.1. Men's Roles And Activities

3.1.3.1.1.1. Entering An Occupation

3.1.2.1.1.2. Economic Consolidation And Courtship

3.1.2.1.1.3. Engagement And Marriage

3.1.2.1.1.4. Family Life

3.1.2.1.2. Women's Roles And Activities

3.1.2.1.2.1. Economic Autonomy

3.1.2.1.2.2. Motherhood

3.1.2.1.2.3. Family Life

3.1.2.2. Old Age

3.2. The Annual Cycle

3.2.1. Some Traditional Calendars

3.2.2. Seasonal Activities

3.2.2.1. The Spring: Gi[unknown] O[unknown] Oa

3.2.2.2. Early Summer: Gi[unknown] O[unknown] Oa-geassi

3.2.2.3. The Summer: Geassi

3.2.2.4. Late Summer:[unknown] Cak'[unknown] Ca-geassi

3.2.2.5. The Autumn:[unknown] Cak'[unknown] Ca

3.2.2.6. Early Winter:[unknown] Cak'[unknown] Ca-dál'vi

3.2.2.7. Winter: Dál'vi

3.2.2.8. Late Winter: Gi[unknown] O[unknown] Oa-dál'vi

3.3. Varlations Of A Daily Routine

3.3.1. The Relativity Of Routine

3.3.2. On Awakening

3.3.3. Meal-taking

3.3.4. Housckeeping

3.3.5. Sources And Destinations

3.3.6. Work At Home

3.3.7. On Napping And Retiring

3.4. Temporal Factors Bearing On Ethnoecology

3.4.1. The Grammatical Expression Of Time

3.4.1.1. Adverbs Of Time

3.4.1.2. The Verb

3.4.2. Some Lexical Domains

3.4.3. Attitudes Toward Time

Untitled Section: ...

4. Space, Its Structure And Occupation

4.0 General

4.1. Interactional Space

4.1.1. Work And Play Relationships

4.1.1.1. On Activizing Relationships And Choice Of Partners

4.1.1.2. Symmetrical Role Relationships

4.1.1.2.1. Partners: Guoimat

4.1.1.2.2. Companions: Ol'bmát

4.1.1.2.3. Name-sharers: Gáimit

4.1.1.3. Asymmetrical Role Relationships

4.1.1.3.1. Sii'da Head And Sii'da Partner: Siida Isit And Sii'da-guoi'bmi

4.1.1.3.2. Employer And Hired Hand: Isit Or Eamit And Bál'vá

4.1.1.3.3. Guest And Host: Guos'si And Verde

4.1.1.4. Extra-human Relationships

4.1.1.4.1. Herding Dog And Master: Boazo-beana And Isit

4.1.1.4.2. The Reindeer And Herder: Boccut And Boazo-gea[unknown] C'[unknown] Ci

4.1.2. Contexts Of Instruction And Learning

4.2. Individual Expressive Space

4.2.1. Movement

4.2.2. Postures

4.2.3. Gestures

4.2.4. Contact

4.3. Group Spatial Contexts

4.3.1. Campfire And Tent

4.3.2. Sod Hut, Cabin, And House

4.3.3. Hamlet And Neighborhood

4.3.4. Sii'da And Its Range

4.3.5. Village And Town

1.4. Organization And Conventions

Vignette Varieties Of Mobility

2. Primary Social Units

2.0. General

4.4.2. Some Lexical Domains

4.4.2.1. Direction: Guov'lo

4.4.2.2. Location: Saddji

4.4.2.3. The Organization Of Natural Spatial Entities

4.4.3. Attitudes Toward Space

Untitled Section: ...

5. Organization Of Environmental Resources

5.0 General

5.1. Resource Recognition

5.1.1. Natural Resources In General: Luondo ‘nature’

6.1.2. Biological Resources In Particular

5.1.3. Taxonomic Superstructure Of Biologic Domains

5.2. Systematization Of Eallit ‘animals’ And Utilization Of Zoologic Resources

5.2.0. Survey Statement

5.2.1. Birds: Loddit 1

5.2.2. Mammals And Other Land Vertebrates: Spiret

5.2.3. Fish: Guolit

5.2.4. Flying Invertebrates: Loddit 2

5.2.5. Elongate Crawling Invertebrates: Divrit 1

5.2.6. Beetles And Globular Invertebrates: Gobbát

5.2.7. Shelled Invertebrates: Skál[unknown] Zot

5.3. Systematization Of[unknown] Sad'dagat ‘plants’ And Utilization Of Botanic Resources

5.3.0. Survey Statement

5.3.1. Deciduous Trees: Muorat

5.3.2. Conifer Trees: Goac'ci-muorat

5.3.3. Fungi: Guob'barat

5.3.4. Leafy Plants: Rásit

5.3.4.1. Erect Herbs: Rásit 2

5.3.4.2. Low Herbs: Lastahat

5.3.4.3. Erect Shrubs: Mies'tagat

5.3.4.4. Low Shrubs: Dag[unknown] Asat

5.3.5. Bladed Plants: Suoinit

5.3.6. Lichens: Jeakkálat

5.3.7. Mosses: Sámmálat

5.4. Relative Lmportance Of Resource Domains

5.4.1. Biologic Resources In General

5.4.2. Physiographic Resources

5.4.3. Meteorological Resources

5.5. Evaluation And Measurement Of Resources

5.5.1. Qualitative And Quantitative Measures Of Interest

5.5.1.1. Material, Sociocultural, And Lexical Coterminance, Conterminance, And Overlap

5.5.1.2. The Half And The Implied Shapes Of Things

5.5.1.3. Paradigm For Categories Of Measurement

5.5.2. Evaluation Of Important Ecologic Variables

5.5.2.1. Terrain As Experienced: Duogá[unknown] S ‘environment, Milieu’

5.5.2.2. Subjective Weather Conditions: Dál'ki ‘weather, Harsh Weather’

5.5.2.3. Surface Travel Conditions: Sii'vo

5.5.2.4. Forage Conditions: Guotton ‘pasturage’; And Other Land Use

Vignette 6 Names And Naming

6. Social Organization Of Resource Management

6.0. General

6.1. Linguistic And Sociocultural Issues

6.1.1. Structure And Process In Folk Classification

6.1.2. Nomenclatural Patterns In Saami Ethnobiology

6.1.3. Indicators Of Salience And Assumptions In Saami Ethnoecology

6.1.4. Coping With Variation And Variability

6.2. Patterns Of Consumption And Conversion

6.2.1. Energy And Nonconsumable Resources

6.2.2. Investment And Expenditure Of Energy

6.2.3. Exchange Media

6.3. Overall Factors Bearing On Ethnoecology

6.3.1. Practices In Extensive Reindeer Management

6.3.1.1. The Spatial Stretch

6.3.1.2. The Temporal Squeeze

6.3.1.3. Dependence On Nonindigenous Energy Sources

6.3.2. Child-raising Practices

6.3.2.1. Learning Situations

6.3.2.2. Discriminations In Space And Time

6.3.3. Bilingualism And Biculturalism

6.3.3.1. Impact Of The School And Tourism

6.3.3.2. Attitudes Toward Nonindigenous Knowledge And Techniques

6.3. Implications Of Pattern In Overall Resource Management

6.4. Summary And Conclusions

Untitled Section: ...

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Author:

Title: Saami ethnoecology: resource management in Norwegian Lapland

Published By: Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms International, 1978. 3 v. (iii, xxxv, 941 p.): ill., maps

By line: Myrdene Anderson

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 1996. Computer File

Culture: Saami (EP04)

Subjects: Geography (130); History and culture change (170); Language (190); Annual cycle (221); Pastoral activities (233); Ideas about nature and people (820);

Abstract: This study is the result of nearly five years of fieldwork among the Saami of the regions comprising western Finnmark and northern Troms counties in Norway. The primary focus, however, is the GUOV'DAGEAI'DNO (or KAUTOKEINO) area located in Finnmark County, Norway. 'The social organization, folk knowledge, and physiographic factors shaping Saami transactions with the natural environment are systematized for various ethnoecologic domains and examined for patterns underlying the structure, persistence, and change in the classification of knowledge involved in resource management' (p. i). The work consists of three volumes. Volume I presents the methodology, data on the primary social units of the Saami, life cycle and annual cycle events, daily routine, and temporal factors bearing on ethnoecology. Volume II deals with the concepts of space, its structure and occupation, spatial factors bearing on ethnoecology, and the organization of environmental resources (with much data on native fauna and flora and their utilization), and the social organization of resource management. Volume III consists of four appendices dealing with language, culture history, modern reindeer management (ca. 1971-1976), and GUOV'DAGEAI'DNO and its environs as it exists today (ca.1971-1976).

Document Number: 18

Document ID: ep04-018

Document Type: Monograph

Language: English

Note: UM 7915912. Thesis (Ph.D.) -- Yale University, 1978 Includes bibliographical references (p. 859-941)

Field Date: ca. 1971-1976 (p. v)

Evaluation: Ethnologist-5

Analyst: John Beierle ; 1994

Coverage Date: variable

Coverage Place: Guov'dageai'dno (Kautokeino) area, Finnmark County, northern Norway (p. v)

LCSH: Saami (European people)/Human ecology

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