Adriani, Nicolaus, 1865-1926. The Bare'e-speaking Toradja of central Celebes (the East Toradja): second volume

Table of Contents

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Chapter Ix The Spirit World

1. Three Groups Of Spirits.

2. Lai And Ndara.

3. Poee-di-songi. Ngkai-mantande-songka.

4. Poee-mpalaboeroe.

5. The Creator And The Creation.

6. Other Creation Stories. The Flood.

7. People Were Fated Not To Die.

8. Predestination.

9. Paradise.

10. Birds As Emissaries Of The Gods.

11. Divining With The Oracle String.

12. Divining With Maize Kernels.

13. The Splitting Of The Divining Object.

14. Divining By Measuring.

15. The Relationship Between Human Beings And Gods. The Idea Of Sin.

16. Atonement For Sin.

17. Woerake Spirits.

18. Names Of Woerake.

19. Villages Of The Woerake.

20. Houses Of The Woerake.

21. The Food Of The Woerake Spirits.

22. The Chiefs Of The Woerake.

23. The Waging Of War By The Woerake.

24. The Slaves Of The Woerake.

25. Field Gods Of A General Nature.

26. Private Field-spirits.

27. Spirit Groups And Field Communities.

28. The Punishments Of The Field Spirits.

29. The Rice Goddess (lise).

30. The Rice Goddess As A Bird.

31. Spirits That Do Harm To People In Their Agriculture.

32. Tree Spirits.

33. The Spirit Of The Waringin.

34. Contacts Of The Tree Spirits With People.

35. Special Forest Spirits.

36. Water Spirits.

37. Imboe Spirits.

38. Spirits Of The Ground.

39. Spirits Of Stones. Watoe-mora’a. Tagoralangi.

40. The Significance That Is Attached To Some Stones.

41. Petrifactions.

42. The Spirits Give People Supernatural Powers. Mobaratapa.

43. The Veneration Of The Souls Of The Ancestors In The Household.

44. The Veneration Of The Ancestors In The Tribe. The Anitoe.

Untitled Section: ...

Chapter X Priestesses And Their Work

1. Only Women Occupy The Priesthood.

2. Men Who Serve As Priestesses. Bajasa.

3. How The Priesthood Originated.

4. The Skirt Ranondo-lipoe.

5. The Consecration Feast Momparilangka (mompakawoerake). Who Underwent The Consecration.

6. What The Feast Of The Priestly Consecration Serves For.

7. Where The Consecration Feast Took Place.

8. What Is Necessary For The Consecration Feast.

9. The Langka Mpealo.

10. The Entrance Of The Girls To Be Consecrated.

11. The Girls Inside The Curtain Of The Langka.

12. The Task Of The Priestesses At The Time Of The Consecration Feast.

13. The Mooko Lipoe.

14. Mongkabe Eo.

15. The Making Of The Sacred Objects.

16. The Battle Against The Evil Powers In The Air.

17. The Last Day In The Feast-hut (temple).

18. Molontjo Wawoe.

19. Mopandajora.

20. The Trip Back To The Village.

21. Paying Visits And End Of The Feast.

22. The Reward Of The Priestesses.

23. The Training To Become A Priestess.

24. The Priestess In Daily Life.

25. Characteristics Of The Priestess.

26. The Priestess Is Asked To Come To The Patient.

27. The Clothing Of The Priestess.

28. The Priestess Gets Ready For The Recitation.

29. The Tadoe In The Pelawo.

30. The Litany Of The Priestess.

31. The Departure Of The Priestess.

32. The Trip Through The Heavenly Space.

33. The Stay With The Woerake Spirits.

34. The Priestess In The Realm Of The Dead.

35. The Priestess With The Lord Of The Sky.

36. The Priestess In The Realm Of The Dead And The Bela Spirits.

37. Return Of The Priestess.

38. Reward Of The Priestess.

39. Mowoerake Ri Tana.

40. Mowoerake Ri Raoa.

41. Mowase.

42. Made Ill By Spirits Of The Temple.

43. Made Ill By Spirits Of The Fields.

44. The Priestess After The Return Of A Party Of Travelers; After Escaping From Danger.

45. Mampapotanoana.

46. The Priestess In Connection With A Death.

47. The Priestess At A Housewarming.

48. The Priestess And Rice Cultivation.

49. Other Occasions At Which The Priestess Serves.

50. Shamanism.

Untitled Section: ...

Chapter Xi Sicknesses And Their Treatment

1. The Toradja And His Sick Ones.

2. Signs From Which It Is Concluded Whether The Sick Person Will Recover Or Not.

3. A Medical Practitioner Is Called.

4. Good And Bad Days.

5. People Are Made Sick By Spirits.

6. Sickness Is Infectious Matter, Which Invades The Body And Is Removed.

7. To Remove The Sickness By Rubbing. Mopagere.

8. Sorcery, Kantoe, Doti.

9. Other Ways In Which One Makes His Fellow Man Sick.

10. The Influence Of A Person On Others Who Have Relations With Him.

11. One Can Carry The Seed Of The Sickness In Oneself.

12. Medicines From The Vegetable Kingdom.

13. Medicines From Human Beings And Animals.

14. Remedies From The Mineral Kingdom.

15. Homoeopathic And Sympathetic Remedies.

16. The Ways In Which Medicines Are Administered.

17. Foods Prohibited For Sick Persons.

18. Treatment By Way Of Operations.

19. Treatment Of Wounds.

20. Symptoms Of Leprosy.

21. Fever.

22. Skin Ailments.

23. Rheumatoid Arthritis (koele).

24. Eye Ailments And Blindness.

25. Ear, Nose, Throat, And Mouth.

26. Various Kinds Of Indispositions.

27. Contagious Diseases. Smallpox.

Untitled Section: ...

Chapter Xii Mohammedanism On The Southern Side Of Tomini Bay

1. The Introduction Of Islam In Saoesoe And Todjo.

2. Story Of The Introduction Of Islam In Kaili And Parigi.

3. The Influence Of Islam On The Toradja.

4. Islam Has Been Assimilated To The Old Pagan Conceptions.

5. The Influence Of Islam On Its Followers.

6. The Knowledge Of Islam.

7. Popular Stories And Folk Belief.

8. Story Of The Creation Of The World.

9. Story Of The Birth Of Mohammed.

9a. Story Of Mohammed’s Marriage.

10. One Thing And Another From The Life Of Mohammed.

11. The Religious Life In Tomini Bay.

12. The Clergy And The Koran Instruction.

13. The Reciting Of The Koran (mangadji) Is General.

14. The Way In Which Instruction Is Given.

15. The Creed.

16. The Ritual Divine-service.

17. The Pilgrimage.

18. Fasting And Alms.

19. The End Of Fasting.

20. The Feast In The Month Of Sapa, And The Maoelid.

21. Marriage Among The Mohammedans.

22. Divorce Among The Mohammedans.

23. The Giving Of A Name And The Cutting Of The Hair Among The Mohammedans.

24. The Shortening Of The Teeth Among The Mohammedans.

25. The Offering Of The Akeka.

26. The Mohammedan Circumcision.

27. The Disposal Of The Dead Among The Mohammedans.

28. The Burial Of A Chief.

29. Mourning Customs Upon The Death Of Prominent Persons.

Untitled Section: ...

Chapter Xiii Marriage

1. Marriage Is A Necessity. Remaining Unmarried.

2. Sexual Maturity. Menstruation.

3. The Association Between The Two Sexes.

4. Sexual Intercourse.

5. Kinship Relations.

6. Prohibited Marriages.

7. Special Kin-group Relations In Connection With The Marriage Law.

8. Ways In Which The Difference In Generations Is Abrogated. Wentje Ntida.

9. Origin Of The Expiatory Offering For Incest.

10. The Simple Form Of The Expiatory Offering. Moandoe.

11. The Elaborate Form Of The Expiatory Offering. Moramboelangi.

12. Undesirable Marriages.

13. Child Betrothal.

14. Where The Man Looks For His Wife.

15. Why The Man Asks The Girl.

16. The Preparation For Asking For The Hand Of The Girl.

17. The Transmitting Of The Proposal.

18. The Answer To The Proposal.

19. Why A Suitor Is Refused.

20. The Pressure Exerted On A Girl And Her Resistance. Elopement.

21. Means Of Arousing Love.

22. The Betrothal. Mompakareme.

23. The Conclusion Of Marriage. Mopawawa. Mebolai.

24. The Nuptial Procession.

25. The Nuptial Cortege Is Stopped. Mobolombongi.

26. The Marriage Meal.

27. The Climbing Up Into The Dwelling Of The Bride.

28. The Admonishing Of The Bridal Couple.

29. The End Of The Nuptial Feast.

30. The Marriage Portion. “the Seven.”

31. The Dog And The Marriage Portion.

32. The Size Of The Marriage Portion.

33. The Basis Of The Marriage Portion.

34. The Marriage Portion And The Kolokompa (sawoe).

35. What The Marriage Portion Serves For.

36. The “bringing Down” Of The Bride. Mantoedoemaka.

37. Visit Of The Young Wife To Her Parents-in-law.

38. The Relationship Of The Man With His Parents-in-law.

39. The Relationship Between Man And Wife.

40. Polygamy.

41. Adultery.

42. Divorce.

43. Remarriage With The Woman From Whom One Is Divorced.

44. The Christian Marriage.

Untitled Section: ...

Chapter Xiv Pregnancy And Birth

1. The Desire For Children.

2. Sons Or Daughters.

3. The Fertility Of The Women. Infant Mortality.

4. Procuring Abortion.

5. Impregnation.

6. Abnormal Impregnation.

7. Sterility.

8. Abnormal Pregnancy.

9. Normal Pregnancy.

10. Prohibitions During Pregnancy.

11. The Confinement.

12. Midwives.

13. Delayed Expulsion.

14. The Ways In Which The Child Is Born. Head Position.

15. Feet Position.

16. To Be Born With A Caul.

17. The Child Does Not Cry At Birth.

18. Abortions And Twins.

19. Stillbirths. Children That Die Soon After Birth.

20. The Afterbirth (towoeni).

21. Treatment Of The Newborn Child.

22. Treatment Of The Woman In Childbed.

23. Prohibitions For The Woman In Childbed.

24. Death Of The Woman In Childbed.

25. Visiting The Woman In Childbed.

27. Decreasing And Increasing The Flow Of Mother’s Milk.

28. The Child Is Nursed By Another Woman.

29. Weaning The Child.

Untitled Section: ...

Chapter Xv The Child

1. Making The Cradle.

2. Furnishing The Cradle.

3. The Child In The Cradle.

4. Flattening The Skull.

5. Lullabies.

6. The Meaning Of Birthmarks.

7. Various Marks On The Infant’s Body.

8. Resemblance Of The Child To Father Or Mother.

9. The Mother Goes Down Below For The First Time.

407 10. The Child Is Taken Down Below For The First Time.

11. The Infant Pays Visits.

12. The Child Is Taken To The River.

13. Mampapotanoana.

14. Worries About The Infant.

15. The Ages Of The Child. Getting Teeth.

16. Shedding Teeth.

17. Hair And Nails Of The Infant.

18. The Umbilical Cord On The Child.

19. The Giving Of A Name.

20. Changing Names.

21. The Choice Of The Name.

22. The Use Of The Teknonymous Name.

23. Foster Parents And Foster Children.

24. The Environment In Which The Child Grows Up 9 .

25. Means By Which Parents Impose Their Will On The Children.

26. Raising The Child.

27. Circumcision.

28. Origin And Aim Of Circumcision.

29. Mutilating The Teeth.

30. Piercing The Ear Lobe.

31. Making Burns.

Untitled Section: ...

Chapter Xvi Death And Burial

1. Signs On A Person That Point To An Early Death.

2. Birds Prophesy The Death Of A Person.

3. The Toad As Harbinger Of Death.

4. Mice Are Death Souls.

5. The Snake As Harbinger Of Death.

6. Other Animals That Foretell Death.

7. Various Signs That Announce Death.

8. Dreams Prophesy Death.

9. Causes Of Death.

10. Dying In Foreign Places.

11. A Long Deathbed.

12. The Deathbed. Bewailing The Dead.

13. Announcing The Death To The Domestic Animals.

14. Signs On The Corpse.

15. The Laying Out Of The Corpse.

16. Hair And Nails Of The Deceased.

17. The Bed-of-state Of The Deceased. Batoewali.

18. Offerings For The Dead.

19. Keeping Watch By The Corpse.

20. Djondjo Awa. Molina.

21. Indo I Bo’i.

22. Other Games In Connection With The Deathwatch.

23. The Coffin.

24. Those Who May Not Take Part In Making The Coffin.

25. Precautions In Connection With Making The Coffin.

26. Felling The Tree.

27. Making The Coffin.

28. Those Who Do Not Get A Coffin.

29. Putting The Corpse In The Coffin.

30. What Is Sent Along In The Coffin.

31. Iron May Not Be In The Coffin.

32. The Carrying Out Of The Corpse.

33. What Must Be Attended To In Connection With The Carrying Out.

34. Customs In Connection With The Carrying Out.

35. Strewing Rice.

36. Severing Connection With The Dead And With Death. The Dog Sacrifice.

37. On The Way To The Last Resting Place.

38. Interment In The Corpse-hut.

39. Closing The Coffin.

40. Tandojae.

41. Taking Leave Of The Dead.

42. Other Ways Of Disposing Of The Corpse.

43. The Grave And The Burial.

44. The Return From The Grave.

45. After The Burial.

46. Mata Mpoli, “the Final Days Of Mourning.”

47. The Priestess In Connection With A Death.

48. Burial Of A Priestess.

49. General Mourning.

50. The Lifting Of General Mourning.

51. Special Mourning. The Widow (widower) Goes Into Seclusion.

52. The Widow (widower) Abstains From Eating Rice.

53. The Widow’s Mourning Is Lifted.

54. The Sacrifice For The Deceased.

55. The Feast For The Dead. The Purpose Of It.

56. The Origin Of The Motengke.

57. The Preparation For The Feast.

58. The Gathering Of The Bones Of The Dead (meparoeroe).

59. What Is Done With The Bones. The Death’s Head As Medicine.

60. The Placing Of The Packets Of Bones. The Death Mask (pemia).

61. The Catafalque (solikaro).

62. The Officiating Priestesses.

63. Summoning The Deceased.

64. The Litany Of The Dead.

65. Dance And Song Of The Celebrants.

66. Taking The Dead To The City Of Souls.

67. The Last Day Of The Feast. The Montida Woekoe. The Rewards Of The Priestesses.

68. Taking Away The Bones.

69. Some Divergent Customs In Connection With The Feast For The Dead Among Some Tribes.

Publication Information

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Publication Information

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Title: The Bare'e-speaking Toradja of central Celebes (the East Toradja): second volume

Published By: Amsterdam: Noord-Hollandsche Uitgevers Maatschappij, 1951. HRAF MS: ix, 810 p. [original: viii, 557 p.]

By line: N. Adriani and Albert C. Kruyt

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 1997. Computer File

Culture: Eastern Toraja (OG11)

Subjects: Religious beliefs (770); Religious practices (780); Ecclesiastical organization (790);

Abstract: This is volume two of the Adriani and Kruyt's ethnography on the Bare'e-speaking Toraja of central Celebes. Volume two deals with religious aspects of Toraja life, with additional information on marriage, sickness, pregnancy and birth, child rearing and death and burial. A separate chapter dealing with Islam on the southern side of Tomini Bay contains information on acculturation of the native Toraja population. The remaining chapters deal specifically with the spirit world, the role and function of the priestesses in the society, various sicknesses and their treatment, marriage customs, the reproductive cycle from conception to birth, child care and child rearing from the cradle to puberty, and finally a detailed discussion on death and burial practices.

Document Number: 3

Document ID: og11-003

Document Type: Monograph

Language: English

Note: Translation of: [De Bare'e sprekende Toradjas van Midden-Celebes (de Oost-Toradjas), tweede deel. Tweede, geheel omgewerket druk.]. The original Dutch text is not included. Translated for the HRAF files by Jenni Karding Moulton. For additional information on the contents of the other volumes in this series, see the citation for 2: Adriani and Kruyt. A complete bibliography and index of native words and of trees and plants will be found in 4: Adriani and Kruyt, pp. 621-651

Field Date: 1892-1932

Evaluation: Linguists, Missionaries-5

Analyst: John Beierle ; Irving Rosenthal ; 1970

Coverage Date: pre-contact to early contact period

Coverage Place: central Celebes, Indonesia

LCSH: Toraja (Indonesian people)

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