Ahmed, Akbar S.. Pukhtun economy and society: traditional structure and economic development in a tribal society

Table of Contents

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Part One Introduction

1 Introduction

I Problem

(a) The Problem

(b) The Problem Restated

Ii Methodology

(a) Method In The Field

(b) Role Of The Field-worker

Iii Theory

Iv Model

2 The Mohmand Ecological And Administrative Framework

I Mohmand Ecology

Ii Administrative Systems And The Mohmand

3 Tribal Society And The Historical Process

I Colonial Encounters And Tribal Strategy

Ii Historical Process And Agnatic Rivalry

Part Two Tribal Models

4 Segmentary Tribes And Models Of Pukhtun Social Organization

I The Tribe

Ii The Pukhtun Ideal-type Model

(a) Pukhtun Ideal-type

(b) Social Diacritica: Diet And Dress

(c) Religious Symbolism Among The Pukhtun

Iii Typology Of Pukhtun Social Organization

5 Lineage And Leadership Organization: Alliance And Conflict

I Unilineal Descent As Organizing Principle In Tribal Society

Ii Leadership And Authority: ‘chiefly’ Model

Iii Tribal Conflict

(a) Intra-lineage Conflict: Case-studies

(b) Inter-clan Conflict: Case-study

6 Non-pukhtun Groups: Patron And Client Relationships

I Sayyeds, Mians And Mullahs: ‘saintly’ Model

(a) Mians

(b) Mullahs

Ii Occupational Groups

7 Pukhto Paradigm

I Tarboorwali: Agnatic Rivalry As Expression Of The Nang Principle

(a) Case-study: Tam

(b) Case-study: Sam

Ii Tor: Female Chastity As Expression Of The Nang Principle

8 Settlement And Domestic Structure

I Ethno-dynamics Of Tribal Settlements: Spatial Mobility And Lineage Politics

Ii Dwa-kora: The Concept Of Dual Residence

Iii Types Of Tribal Settlements

(a) Tam Settlements

(b) Sam Households

Iv Pukhtun Marriages

9 Economic Structure And Lineage Ideology

I The Agricultural Cycle

Ii Income, Consumption And Expenditure

(a) Income, Consumption And Expenditure

(b) Expenditure On Rites De Passage

Iii Mohmand Daily Diaries

Iv Inheritance

V Market Function In The Tribal Economy

(a) Tam Market

(b) The Shops Of Bela Mohmandan

Part Three Encapsulating Systems, Economic Development And Tribal Strategy

10 Encapsulating Systems And Tribal Strategy

I The Role Of The Political Agent In Tribal Society

Ii Encapsulation: Prison And Parliament

(a) Case-study: Prison

(b) Case-study: Parliament 4

Iii Education As A Factor Of Encapsulation

Iv ‘peasantization’ And Perception Of Change In Tribal Groups

(a) ‘peasantization’ Of Tribal Groups

(b) Perception Of Change In Society

11 Economic Development And Encapsulation

I The Mohmand Road As A Factor Of Encapsulation

Ii Economic Development: Penetration And Emigration

(a) Development Schemes

(b) Emigration

Iii The Bela Mohmandan Cooperative Society: Lineage Politics And Development Schemes

12 Conclusion

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Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

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Author:

Title: Pukhtun economy and society: traditional structure and economic development in a tribal society

Published By: London ; Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980. 16, 406 p.: ill., maps

By line: Akbar Salahudin Ahmed

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 2002. Computer File

Culture: Pashtun (AU04)

Subjects: Ethics (577); Ingroup antagonisms (578); Public welfare (657); Territorial hierarchy (631); Warfare (726); External relations (648); Lineages (613); Cultural identity and pride (186); Dwellings (342); Standard of living (511); Nuclear family (594); Extended families (596); Education system (871); Peacemaking (728); Gender status (562); Legal norms (671); Cousins (605); Tribe and nation (619);

Abstract: In this work the author attempts to construct an ideal-type model of Pashtun society based primarily on his field work and the ideal code of the Pashtuns called the pukhtunwali, which revolves around agnatic rivalry (tarboorwali) and the preservation of the honor of women (tor). Pashtun society confers honor and status on its members through acts approximating how closely one can come to achieving these ideals. According to Ahmed, adherence to the ideal code of pukhtunwali is greatest in Pashtun society when interaction with larger state systems (e.g., Pakistan or Afghanistan) is minimal and when that segment of the society is located in an economically poor geographic zone. To test this hypothesis the author compares Tribal Area Mohmands (TAM) representing the ideal (nang) society with the Settled Area Mohmand (SAM) who represent the encapsulated (qalang) or acculturated element. The detailed comparisons of these two societal units make up the greater part of this source. In addition to the above, information will also be found in this source on social organization, lineages, patron and client relations,settlements and domestic structure, marriage, economics, income, inheritance, education, and markets.

Document Number: 1

Document ID: au04-001

Document Type: Monograph

Language: English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 379-397)

Field Date: 1972-1977

Evaluation: Ethnologist, Government Official-4,5

Analyst: John Beierle ; 1987

Coverage Date: mid-nineteenth century - 1970s

Coverage Place: Mohmand Pashtun, Mohmand Agency and Peshwar District, northwestern Pakistan

LCSH: Pushtuns

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